Tropical Cyclone

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Cyclone
1. What is cyclone 2. Killer Cyclones
3. Cyclone Risk Mitigation and Preparedness Framework 4. Risk Mapping, Assessment and Analysis 5. Structural and Non Structural Mitigation 6. Sea Wall and Embankments 7. Bio-Shields 8. Cyclone Shelter

9. Cyclone Resistant Housing & Infrastructure 10. Early Warning and Communication 11. Community Based Disaster Preparedness 12. Risk Transfer and Risk Financing 13. Capacity Development and Training 14. Awareness and Education 15. Contingency Plans

1

What is cyclone Millions of people living in the coastal areas of the west Atlantic, east and south Pacific and north and south Indian Oceans, regularly face the hazards of cyclone, also known as hurricane in the Western Hemisphere, typhoon in the western Pacific, willy willy near Australia and baguious in the Philippines. Every cyclone begins as tropical low-pressure depressions, created by oceanic temperature rising above 26 degrees Celsius, which rotates clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, forming a gigantic and highly volatile atmospheric system - with an eye at the vortex (10 to 50 Km) which is a relatively calm area, an eye wall (10 to 15 km in height and 50 km in length) of gale winds and intense clouds and spiral bands of convective clouds with torrential rains (a few km wide and hundreds of km long) - that move above 34 knots (64 km per hour). The cyclones moving more than 90 km, 120 km and 225 km per hour respectively have been classified as severe, very severe and super cyclones. The hurricanes in the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific basins are classified in Categories I to V as per Saffir-Simpson Intensity Scale1. More often the cyclone blows over and dissipates by its own momentum without causing much damage due to reduction of moisture and increase in surface friction, but sometimes it landfalls on the coastal settlements with very high velocity of wind, torrential rain and massive storm surges, resulting in devastating damages to life and property. Killer Cyclones There are records of many killer cyclones that consumed tens of thousands of human lives, such as the Kyushu typhoon of Japan (1281) that killed more than 100,000 people, the Canton typhoon of China (1862) that took 37,000 lives, the Midnapore (1864) and the Backergunj (1876) cyclone of Bengal that claimed 75,000 and 200,000 lives respectively and the Galveston hurricane of Texas (1900) that left 12,000 dead 2. Cyclones no longer kill such enormous numbers anymore in most of the countries due to various mitigation and preparatory measures; still people die in thousands at many places. The cyclones that killed more than 1000 lives since 1950 are listed below: Table – I: Cyclones that Killed more than 1000 persons since 19503 Basin North Indian Ocean Cyclone Cyclone Cyclone Cyclone Cyclone Cyclone Bhola Cyclone Cyclone Gorky Cyclone Cyclone Year 1963 1965 1965 1965 1970 1985 1991 1971 1977 Countries East Pakistan East Pakistan East Pakistan Karachi, Pakistan East Pakistan Bangladesh Bangladesh Orissa, India Andhra, India Deaths 22,000 17,000 30,000 10,000 300,000 10,000 131,000 10,000 20,000

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Cyclone Cyclone Cyclone West Hurricane Flora Atlantic Hurricane Inez Hurricane Fifi Hurricane David Hurricane Mitch Hurricane Katrina East and South Typhoon Iris Pacific Typhoon Sarah Typhoon Vera Baguious Thelma

1996 1998 1999 1963 1966 1974 1969 1998 2005 1955 1959 1959 1991

Andhra, India Gujarat, India Orissa, India Cuba, Haiti Caribbean, Mexico Central America Central America Central America New Orleans, USA Fujian, China Japan, South Korea Japan Philippines

1,000 1,000 9,500 8,000 2,000 5,000 2,608 11,000 1,836 2,334 2,000 4,466 3,000

It would be seen that out of a total 602,908 deaths due to these 22 killer cyclones since 1950, North Indian Ocean accounted for 551,500 (93%), Bay of Bengal 540,500 (89.6%) and Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan) 500,000 (83%). Most of these unfortunate...
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