Trompenaars and Hamden Turner classified cultures along a mix of behavioral and value patterns. Their research focuses on the cultural dimensions of business executives.
1. Universalism vs. Particularism
(What is more important, rules or relationships?)
Universalistic Countries: focus more on formal rules than relationships; believe that their ideas and practices can be applied worldwide without modification (Germany, UK, US) Particularistic countries: more emphasis on relationships than rules. Particularistic people believe that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices are applied. (China, Indonesia)
2. Specific vs. diffuse Cultures
Specific cultures: individuals are open to share a large public space with others, private space is only shared with friends/family; strong separation between work and private life (UK, US) In diffuse cultures; introverts, work and private life are closely linked but intensely protected (China)
3. Achievement vs. ascription Cultures
(Do we have to prove ourselves to receive status or is it given to us?) Achievement Culture: people are accorded status based on how well they perform their functions (US, UK) Ascription culture: status is attributed based on who or what a person is e.g. age, gender and social connections.
4. Individualism vs. Communitarianism
(Do we function in a group or as individuals?)
Individualistic countries: people make their own decisions and achieve success alone; emphasis is on personal responsibility and decision-making (US, UK) Communitarianism: success is achieved in groups; decisions are referred to committees (Japan)
5. Emotional vs. neutral culture
(Do we display our emotions?)
Emotional culture: feelings are expressed naturally and openly (Mexico, Netherlands) In neutral cultures: emotions are controlled and feelings are held back (Japan, UK)
6. Time Orientation: Monochronic vs. Polychronic
(Do we do things one at a time or several things at once?)
Monochronic C.: people...
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