Universalism vs. Particularism
Universalism is the belief in:
rules or laws that can be applied to everyone;
agreements and contracts are used as the basis for doing business; rules are used to determine what is right;
contracts should not be altered.
Particularism is the belief in:
placing emphasis on friendships and looking at the situation to determine what is right or ethically acceptable
deals are made based upon friendships;
agreements are changeable;
different people hold different views about reality.
Individualism vs. Collectivism
Individualism is characterized by:
frequent use of “I”,
decision are made on the spot by representatives,
people ideally achieve alone and assume personal responsibility, vacations taken in pairs or even alone vs. group orientation.
Collectivism is characterized by:
frequent use of “we”
decisions referred back by the delegates to the organization people ideally achieve objectives in groups and assume joint responsibility vacations are taken in organized groups of with extended family
Neutral vs. Affective Relationships
Neutral is characterized by:
not revealing what one is thinking or feeling
only accidental revelation of tension in face and posture
hidden emotions that may occasionally explode out
cool and self-possessed conduct that is admired
lack of physical contact, gesturing or strong facial expressions monotone oral delivery of written materials
Affective is characterized by:
nonverbal and verbal display of thoughts and feelings
transparency and expressiveness in release of tensions
easy flow of emotions sometimes effusively, vehemently and without inhibition the admiration and display of heated, vital, animated expressions fluent and dramatic delivery of statements
Specific vs. Diffuse Relationships
Specific is characterized by:
a small private life that is kept private;
large social/public life that is very open to others;...