• Government interventions like provision of urban services in rural areas such as good roads, transportations, drinking water, sanitation, electricity, telecommunication, educational facilities and hospitals etc. This will ensure good living conditions and will result in reduced migration to larger towns/ cities.
• Connecting roads which link many villages to many urban agglomerations, thereby providing quick and easy access to the key markets. Besides, when reliable, quick and frequent transport services are available, these groups of villages can be transformed into a virtual town. This will further empower the villages to support a variety of services that were earlier accessible only in the cities.
• Development of the investment regions/industrial areas/special economic zones around the villages or the underdeveloped areas.
• Large anchor industry being setup - providing the fillip to a number of anqillary industries resulting into in-situ employment (especially pert~inililigJo unskilled labour) giving economic spin-offs for the villages in the periphery of this industry / unit.
• Development of tourism through appropriateshowcasing~nd publicity of tourist destinations which will increase the spen1,i,~g iI11ftthe village economy and generating employment benefiting the people, there,l?y;gi¥ing a fi~lip to loca,l'economic development.
.:. EFFECTS OF RURBANIZATION
Effects of Rurbanization can be seeniHat three lev¢ls namely: local, regional, and state/national level. While changes have b~~n initiated. in one field the effects have to be reflected in diverse field such as ecp~pp1ic, S(j~i~l,.ppl~tiical, environmental and physical.
• Local Effects: Local e,~~~?,~ic ch.~~geSi';~8P1ar to be the most significant outcome of the changes seen at the other;~~(j),~~yels'~'The~'are easy to identify, measure and compare. Growth in agricult~f~,;8rodutetir?Il b;f!~';Iillage is a good measure. Signs like diversity of crops, mix of cropsragriculturalyields proves to the authentic indicators of positive change. Availability oL~nancf(rtechnology, knowledge, inputs, and insurance facilities - all will accelerate thep~tl~I1};~fl.R su~~ess of growth. Economic changes lend support but they sometimes .. also itihiBit the,~cial changes. For example, Punjab is an economically
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prospr~ptis!state but a~~;~,r~~e time is socially backward too.
Emp'~asis. ~~!'~Rm~ c~~ge often affects the economic choices too. Level of general aw~m~~jeernale ,pucation affects the population growth level. Healthcare facilities affect the age structure o:fc!~he society, which in turn affects the economy. Similarly social harmony can lead to 'a.~~nsi6n free society which further enables economic development.
• Regional Effects: Rurbanization and regional growth are closely linked with each other. Enhanced production in respect of any agricultural produce in a region would attract industries related to the same. For example, the agricultural production of sugarcane in a region supports the sugar industry or the production of milk provides the basis for the development of the dairy industries. Similarly, the production of cotton, grains, and fruits attract processing industries thus creating industrial and service sector employment. Regional Agricultural Universities (RAUs) concentrate on the agricultural research and production with respect to that particular area. Common regional identities emerge out of the rurban growth. From a planning perspective, the region as a unit rather than settlement
lead to deterioration in the balance of payment
This may force the state to curtail the importa:.i
The theory of demographic transition. or population cycle is based on the actual. population trends of the advanced countries of the world. According to this theory, every country passes through five...