Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Environments

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FOUNDATION DEGREE IN TRAVEL AND TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT TOURISM, TRAVEL AND HOSPITALITY
ENVIRONMENTS
FTH 104

LEVEL 1

ESSAY

SUBMITTED BY: Cristina Ghergut
MODULE LEARNER: Mike Renshaw
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 19th of January 2011
Word count: 3,241
Contents page

Introduction 3 Structure 4 Key Historical Developments 15 Technological 15 Business developments 18 Conclusion 21 Appendices 23 Bibliography 29

Introduction
More than half of the world economy is based on travel and tourism industry. Many countries have their main economy based on travel and tourism industry mainly because their geographic positioning or pour connections with the main economical countries don’t allow them to develop other industries which could be useful for economy improvements. In 1910 an Austrian economist defined tourism as “bob total of operators, mainly of an economic nature, which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or a region." 31 years later in 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity.” The Society of England defined tourism in 1976 as: “temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.” Of course back then and until 1950’s only the rich and powerful could afford to travel mainly because they had the time and the money to spend. Structure

In 1994 the United Nations in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics classified three types of tourism: 1.Domestic tourism – people traveling from a place to another in their own country; 2.Inbound tourism – people from other countries coming into the country; 3.Outbound tourism - people traveling in another country different from the one they reside in. In order to be able to experience tourism people need disposable income, time off from work, facilities available to travel (e.g. transport, accommodation) and legal allowance to travel. On the other side even though people could afford the time and money to travel there are countries which are prohibiting their citizens to travel abroad. Usually those are countries with communist government. Also there are countries which don’t allow their people to travel in certain countries for example the United States of America don’t allow their citizens to travel in Cuba without a very strong reason. There are three main categories why people are travelling: to visit friends and relatives, for leisure (holidays, educational, culture, and religion, social and spiritual) and business. Because travel and tourism is one of the largest industries in the world it is also one of the most fragmented. As shown on appendices 1 travel and tourism industry is divided in 6 components: 1.Accommodation

2.Transport
3.Attractions
4.Tour operators
5.Travel agents
6.Tourist information and guiding services
Accommodationprincipals – are those who build and staff hotels, villas, apartment resorts or holiday cottages which are available to any traveller. Some of these are major international chains such as: Marriott Hotels, Holiday Inn, Comfort...
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