· Tourism and Climate Change - International - June 2012 - Introduction [Report Section]
· Tourism and Climate Change - International - June 2012 - Data Sources [Report Section]
· Tourism and Climate Change - International - June 2012 - Overview [Report Section]
· Tourism and Climate Change - International - June 2012 - The Impact of Tourism on Climate Change [Report Section]
· Tourism and Climate Change - International - June 2012 - The Impact of Climate Change on Tourism [Report Section]
· Tourism and Climate Change - International - June 2012 - What Next? [Report Section]
· Tourism and Climate Change - International - June 2012 - Mitigating the Impact of Tourism on Climate Change [Report Section]Tourism and Climate Change - International - June 2012Introduction Almost 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP) is generated by activities related to tourism, which include: the direct receipts of tourism industry players (for example hotels, car-rental firms, travel agents and tour operators, some food and beverage outlets and certain attractions); indirect receipts of suppliers to the tourism industry; and induced receipts (spending by employees of the tourism industry and its suppliers). Tourism is therefore a vital component of the world economy and its sustainability is of utmost importance, especially for some developing countries, which count on tourism for a large proportion of their GDP and employment. For example, the direct contribution of tourism to Cambodias economy is estimated by the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) to be 9.5%, and the total contribution of tourism (including direct, indirect and induced receipts) is estimated at 22.1%. These figures can be compared to worldwide averages of only 2.8% and 9.5%, respectively. This report treats three distinct topics. First, the impact that tourism is having on climate change is examined. Second, the report reviews how the tourism industry and its supply chain have been and will be affected by efforts to mitigate the impact of tourism on climate change. Finally, how tourism is being affected by climate change, which is for example reducing snow coverage and producing heatwaves in beach holiday destinations, is evaluated. FINDINGS●?
The current trend towards global warming would seem to be indisputable, since nine out of the ten warmest years in recorded history have taken place over the past decade. ●?
Tourisms contribution to global warming can be estimated at 5.2-12.5% of the worldwide total, if the impact of radiative forcing, which measures the impact of emissions released in the earths upper atmosphere, is taken into account. Otherwise tourism is estimated to generate just under 5% of total CO2 emissions in the world and the sectors total production of CO2 emissions is expected to have more than doubled to over 3,000 metric tonnes (mt) between 2005-35.●?
Transport, led by aviation, is responsible for about three quarters of all tourism-related CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, accommodation generates about a fifth of the total, with the remainder coming from various tourism-related attractions and activities.●?
While business travel and long-haul holidays undoubtedly have a proportionately high impact on climate change due to their intensive use of air travel and hotels, leisure tourism destinations are most impacted by the effects of climate change, which can alter their competitive positioning. ●?
Numerous leisure tourism destinations are threatened by the effects of global climate change, which is causing sea levels to rise, glaciers to recede, erratic precipitation patterns, snowlines to ascend and increased and more intense heatwaves and storms. ●?
As from 1 January 2012, all airlines flying in or out of all European Union (EU) airports are subject to the EUs cap-and-trade pollution permit policy, which is the most serious initiative to date worldwide to try to limit the CO2 emissions from aircraft, the number one tourism-related cause of...
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