Transportation: Commercial Item Transport and Distribution and Carrier

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Chapter 11 Transportation
Trade Terms
• Trade terms are standardized terms used in sales contracts that describe the time, place, and manner of the transfer of goods from the seller to the buyer. • Incoterms(国际贸易术语解释通则)are the most widely used collection of trade terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce. (国际商会) ❖ “Free “Terms

When used in a trade term, free means that the seller has an obligation to deliver goods to a named place for transfer to a carrier. (指卖方有义务在指定地点将货物交给承运人) ❖ FOB
Free On Board – Seller fulfills his/her obligations to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. (当货物在指定的起运港超过船舷后,卖方即完成了交货义务) ❖ FAS
Free Alongside – Seller fulfills obligations to deliver when goods have been placed alongside the vessel on the quay or in lighters at named port. (当货物在指定的启动港被置于船边或驳船之中后,卖方即完成交货义务) ❖ CIF

• Cost, Insurance, and Freight (货运)– Seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to a named port of destination and must procure(获得) marine insurance against the risk of loss to the goods during the carriage. • A CIF contract requires the seller to arrange for carriage of goods by sea to a port of destination, and to turn over to the buyer the documents necessary to obtain the goods from the carrier or assert a claim for loss. The insurance only has to cover minimum conditions. (卖方必须承担货物成本,将货物运送至指定目的港的必要的运费,且必须为买方遭受的货物在运输途中损失的风险购买海上保险) ❖ CFR

Cost and Freight – Seller only has to pay cost and freight to named port. ❖ FCA
• Free Carrier – The seller fulfills obligations to deliver by handing over the goods, cleared for export, to a carrier named by the buyer. The risk of loss shifts to the buyer at that time. • FCA applies to any type of transport

• (e.g., maritime, air, rail, or truck).
❖ EXW
Ex Works – seller is obliged only to deliver the goods at his/her own place of business.

B. Transportation
❖ Freight Forwarders 货运代理
• A freight forwarder is a firm that makes or assists in the making of shipping arrangements. • A full-service freight forwarder can help with:
➢ Determining the availability of ships and facilities ➢ Estimating cost based on weight, cubic feet(立方英尺), value ➢ Booking space (on ships or in warehouses)
➢ Procuring export license
➢ Prepare documents and authenticate invoices
➢ Obtain insurance and certificates of origin

C. Inland Carriage
• It is common for the seller to arrange inland carriage. • The carrier will then transfer the goods to a freight forwarder at a seaport or airport. • Several regional agreements regulate transport by road and rail. • In Europe, road transport is regulated by the 1956 Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road. • Rail governed by 1980 Convention Concerning International Carriage by Rail.

D. Carriage of Goods by Sea
❖ Common carriage
• A common carrier is a ship that carries goods for all persons who choose to employ it so long as there is room. • Common carriers are subject to extensive municipal legislation and international conventions. • The three types of common carriers are:

➢ Conference line (公会班轮)– association of seagoing common carriers operating on established routes (远洋承运人组成的组织,以一致的运输提供运输报价的班轮) ➢ Independent line (独立班轮)– carrier operating over established route with a standard rate schedule (有自己的运费表)

➢ Tramp vessel (不定期船)– standard rates but no established routes (也有自己独立的运费表,但船期不固定) ❖ The Bill of Lading(提单)
A bill of lading is an instrument issued by an ocean carrier to a shipper that serves as a receipt for goods shipped, as evidence of the contract of carriage, and as a document of title for the goods....
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