• Trade terms are standardized terms used in sales contracts that describe the time, place, and manner of the transfer of goods from the seller to the buyer. • Incoterms（国际贸易术语解释通则）are the most widely used collection of trade terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce. (国际商会) ❖ “Free “Terms
When used in a trade term, free means that the seller has an obligation to deliver goods to a named place for transfer to a carrier. （指卖方有义务在指定地点将货物交给承运人） ❖ FOB
Free On Board – Seller fulfills his/her obligations to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. (当货物在指定的起运港超过船舷后，卖方即完成了交货义务) ❖ FAS
Free Alongside – Seller fulfills obligations to deliver when goods have been placed alongside the vessel on the quay or in lighters at named port. （当货物在指定的启动港被置于船边或驳船之中后，卖方即完成交货义务） ❖ CIF
• Cost, Insurance, and Freight (货运)– Seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to a named port of destination and must procure(获得) marine insurance against the risk of loss to the goods during the carriage. • A CIF contract requires the seller to arrange for carriage of goods by sea to a port of destination, and to turn over to the buyer the documents necessary to obtain the goods from the carrier or assert a claim for loss. The insurance only has to cover minimum conditions. （卖方必须承担货物成本，将货物运送至指定目的港的必要的运费，且必须为买方遭受的货物在运输途中损失的风险购买海上保险） ❖ CFR
Cost and Freight – Seller only has to pay cost and freight to named port. ❖ FCA
• Free Carrier – The seller fulfills obligations to deliver by handing over the goods, cleared for export, to a carrier named by the buyer. The risk of loss shifts to the buyer at that time. • FCA applies to any type of transport
• (e.g., maritime, air, rail, or truck).
Ex Works – seller is obliged only to deliver the goods at his/her own place of business.
❖ Freight Forwarders 货运代理
• A freight forwarder is a firm that makes or assists in the making of shipping arrangements. • A full-service freight forwarder can help with:
➢ Determining the availability of ships and facilities ➢ Estimating cost based on weight, cubic feet(立方英尺), value ➢ Booking space (on ships or in warehouses)
➢ Procuring export license
➢ Prepare documents and authenticate invoices
➢ Obtain insurance and certificates of origin
C. Inland Carriage
• It is common for the seller to arrange inland carriage. • The carrier will then transfer the goods to a freight forwarder at a seaport or airport. • Several regional agreements regulate transport by road and rail. • In Europe, road transport is regulated by the 1956 Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road. • Rail governed by 1980 Convention Concerning International Carriage by Rail.
D. Carriage of Goods by Sea
❖ Common carriage
• A common carrier is a ship that carries goods for all persons who choose to employ it so long as there is room. • Common carriers are subject to extensive municipal legislation and international conventions. • The three types of common carriers are:
➢ Conference line (公会班轮)– association of seagoing common carriers operating on established routes (远洋承运人组成的组织，以一致的运输提供运输报价的班轮) ➢ Independent line (独立班轮)– carrier operating over established route with a standard rate schedule （有自己的运费表）
➢ Tramp vessel (不定期船)– standard rates but no established routes （也有自己独立的运费表，但船期不固定） ❖ The Bill of Lading（提单）
A bill of lading is an instrument issued by an ocean carrier to a shipper that serves as a receipt for goods shipped, as evidence of the contract of carriage, and as a document of title for the goods....