Depending on the type of object they take, verbs may be transitive, intransitive, or linking. The meaning of a transitive verb is incomplete without a direct object, as in the following examples: INCOMPLETE
The shelf holds.
The shelf holds three books and a vase of flowers.
The committee named.
The committee named a new chairperson.
The child broke.
The child broke the plate.
An intransitive verb, on the other hand, cannot take a direct object: This plant has thrived on the south windowsill.
The compound verb "has thrived" is intransitive and takes no direct object in this sentence. The prepositional phrase "on the south windowsill" acts as an adverb describing where the plant thrives. The sound of the choir carried through the school hall. The verb "carried" is used intransitively in this sentence and takes no direct object. The prepositional phrase "through the school hall" acts as an adverb describing where the sound carried. The train from Gemas arrived four hours late.
The intransitive verb "arrived" takes no direct object, and the noun phrase "four hours late" acts as an adverb describing when the train arrived. Since the company was pleasant and the coffee both plentiful and good, we lingered in the restaurant for several hours. The verb "lingered" is used intransitively and takes no direct object. The prepositional phrase "in the restaurant for several hours" acts as an adverb modifying "lingered." The painting was hung on the south wall of the reception room. The compound verb "was hung" is used intransitively and the sentence has no direct object. The prepositional phrase "on the south wall of the reception room" acts as a adverb describing where the paint hung. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, depending on their context in the sentence. In the following pairs of...