A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without changing frequency. This is very basic definition of transformer.
History of Transformer
The History of transformer commenced in the year of 1880. In the year of 1950 400KV electrical power transformer first introduced in high voltage electrical power system. In the early 1970s unit rating as large as 1100MVA were produced and 800KV and even higher KV class transformers were manufactured in year of 1980.
Use of Power Transformer
Generation of Electrical Power in low voltage level is very much cost effective. Hence Electrical Power are generated in low voltage level. Theoretically, this low voltage leveled power can be transmitted to the receiving end. But if the voltage level of a power is increased, the electric current of the power is reduced which causes reduction in ohmic or I2R losses in the system, reduction in cross sectional area of the conductor i.e. reduction in capital cost of the system and it also improves the voltage regulation of the system. Because of these, low leveled power must be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This is done by step up transformer at the sending side of the power system network. As this high voltage power may not be distributed to the consumers directly, this must be stepped down to the desired level at the receiving end with help of step down transformer. These are the use of electrical power transformer in the Electrical Power System. Two winding transformers are generally used where ratio between High Voltage and Low Voltage is greater than 2. It is cost effective to use Auto transformer where the ratio between High Voltage and Low Voltage is less than 2. Again Three Phase Single Unit Transformer is more cost effective than a bank of three Single Phase Transformer unit in a three phase system. But still it is preferable to use later where power dealing is very large since such large size of...
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