Student ID: 12062298D Student Name: Lau Tsz Ling
Argument: Transformational leadership is positively related to Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
Choosing a good leading approach is critical for a leader to succeed in leading a team in order to achieve team’s goal. Transformational leadership is one of the recommendable leadership theories for leaders to follow for motivating followers to accomplish more than what they have planned through various ways. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a ladder for followers to participate more and it is believed that transformational leadership can enhance the degree of OCB, but mostly through an indirect way, by influencing job satisfactions and organizational commitment and thus OCB. This essay first focuses on how transformational leadership affect followers’ behavior. The second part will be the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfactions and organizational commitment. Finally, I will come into the indirectly effect of transformational leadership on OCB through job satisfaction and organizational commitment, by using Perceived organizational Support, Equity theory and Social-Exchange Theory for explaination.
According to Burns (1978), transformational leadership is a process that tries to move the consciousness of followers up through appealing to higher ideals and values. Bass (1985) suggests that transformational leader can make followers to pay more attention to consider the task outcomes value, act for the goal of the organization. Besides, it can also motivate the followers to put extra effort like putting high level goals instead of performing the minimum requirements of their work. There are 4 main factors suggests by Bass (1985) on transformational leadership. They are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individual consideration and intellectual stimulation. The first factor, idealized influence, refers to the perception and action that followers toward leader (Bass,1985). If a leader act as a role model for the followers, they can be more easily to gain trust and respect from followers. The second factor is inspirational motivation. It means the articulation of a leader’s vision which appeal and inspire followers (Berson, Shamir, Avolio & Popper, 2001). The third factor, Individual consideration is that “assignment are delegated to followers to provide learning opportunites” (Williams, Pollai, & Schriesheim, 1999:898). The last factor, intellectual stimulation, means that leader stimulate followers’ creativity in order to think in various ways so as to increase productivity.
Organizational Citizenship Bahavior (OCB)
Organ (1988) defines OCB as behavior of workers which is discretionary and excess their basic job requirements. This behavior is beneficial to organization. OCB is excluded from formally defined role prescriptions. Hence, it is hard for managers to reward employees who perform OCB and punish who does not perform (Moorman and Blakely, 1995). In aggregate, contributions from OCB enhance the effectiveness of organizational functioning. Therefore, it is the main concern of managers --- what they can do to make the employees carry out OCB.
Organizational Commitment (OC)
Allen and Meyer(1991) constructs a three-component model about OC. They are affective commitment, calculative commitment and normative commitment. Meyer and Allen(1991) proposes that affective commitment is the emotional attachment of individual to the organization with identification . Calculative commitment is defined as the need for an employee to stay in an organization due to their investment put and sunk costs. Normative commitment refers to the obligation of employees to remain in the organization (Allen & Meyer, 1990).In some meta-analyses (Organ and Ryan,1995) (Meyer, Stanley, Herscovitch, Topolnytsky, 2002), they find that there is a positively relationship...
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