Transformational Leadership

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Research Methods - Article Review Assignment
Transformational Leadership & Organizational Commitment: Mediating role of Psychological empowerment and moderating role of structural distance Objective
Examine the linkage and between transformational leadership and organizational commitment through positive psychological empowerment of employees. Also study the hierarchical distance between a leader and followers moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. Hypothesis 1

Psychological empowerment will mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ organizational commitment. Hypothesis 2
Structural distance moderates the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment such that transformational leadership will have a strong positive relationship with organizational commitment for followers who are structurally close to their supervisors than followers who are structurally distant from their supervisor. Theoretical rationale behind Hypothesis 1

Psychological empowerment will mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ organizational commitment. Spreitzer (1995, p.1443) defined empowerment as an intrinsic motivator that manifested on four cognitive characters (competence, impact, meaning and self determination) of an employee’s orientation to his/her work. Competence refers to feelings of self-efficacy or personal ability to successfully perform a given task. (Bandura, 1986). Impact refers to the degree to which the employee believes his/he tasks has an optimistic effect and he/she can influence organizational outcomes. Meaning refers to the importance individual places on his/her task. Self determination refers to feelings of autonomy in making decisions at work. Transformational leadership theory emphasizes the role of empowerment as a central mechanism of building commitment to the organization’s objectives (Avolio, 1999; Bass, 1999; Yukl, 1998). Transformational leaders helped followers to believe and created greater feelings that they can have an impact on their organization through psychological empowerment (Laschinger, Finegan, & Shamian, 2001). Transformational leaders build team spirit through their enthusiasm, high moral standards, integrity, and optimism and provide meaning and challenge to their followers’ work, enhancing followers’ level of self-efficacy, confidence, meaning, and self-determination. This involvement leads the follower’s to envision an attractive future and inspire them to be committed to achieve it. Transformational leaders challenge their followers to re-examine traditional ways of doing things, through intellectually challenging their creativity, values, beliefs and mindset and urged their followers to try novel and creative approaches to solving problems and performing work (Bass & Avolio, 1994, 1997). Transformational leaders exhibit individualized consideration by listening attentively and paying close attention to their followers’ needs for achievement and growth by acting as mentors or coaches, while encouraging them to take on increasingly more responsibilities in order to develop their full potential (Avolio, 1999; Bass & Avolio, 1994; Kark & Shamir, 2002). This provided the followers with greater opportunities to face challenges, take responsibilities through increased self-determination, resulting in followers to reciprocate with higher levels of commitment to their organizations (Wayne, Liden, & Sparrowe, 2000). Empowered employees are more likely to reciprocate by being more committed to their organization (Eisenberger, Fasolo, & Davis-LaMastro, 1990; Kraimer, Seibert, & Liden, 1999). Employees deriving a greater sense of meaning from their work would have higher levels of commitment to their organization and energy to perform (Kanter, 1983; Wiley, 1999)

Theoretical rationale behind Hypothesis 2
Structural...
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