Communication embraces the entire world of human interaction and behavior. Communication is the means by which culture is transmitted and preserved. Both verbal and non-verbal communication are learned in one’s culture phenomena (Giger and Davidhizar, 1991). 2. Space
Space refers to the distance between individuals when they interact. Rules concerning personal distance vary from culture to culture phenomena (Giger and Davidhizar, 1991). 3. Social Organization
Social organization refers to the manner in which a cultural group organizes itself around the family group phenomena (Giger and Davidhizar, 1991). 4. Time
Time is an important aspect of interpersonal communication. Cultural groups can be past, present, or future oriented. Past oriented groups, enjoy doing things the way they have always been done. Present oriented groups; focus on the here and now. These cultures that fall into this group may neglect preventive health care measures or they may show-up late or not at all for appointments. Future oriented groups are the exact opposite; they are looking at preventive health care measures for their cultural group phenomena (Giger and Davidhizar, 1991). 5. Environmental Control
Environmental control refers to the ability of the person to control nature and to plan and direct factors in the environment that affect them phenomena (Giger and Davidhizar, 1991). 6. Biological variations
Biological differences exist between individuals in different racial groups phenomena (Giger and Davidhizar, 1991). According to Giger and Davidhizar the following questions should be included in my cultural assessment of Ms. Jihad.
1. What country are you from?
2. What is the patient’s religion and how important is it to her daily life? 3. Are there any food preferences or restrictions?
4. What are Ms. Jihad’s communication styles (does she make eye contact when spoken to, does she appear to keep a distance between you when speaking with her, is she very verbal about herself or does she appear to be holding back)? 5. What does the patient think caused the current problem? 6. Have alternative therapies been utilized?
7. Are there religious rituals related to health, sickness, or death that the patient observes? 8. How long have you heard voices or seen things that others state they do not hear or see? 9. Does she identify strongly with others from the same cultural background? 10. What language do you speak?
The next model is the Campinha-Bacote theory which consists of five components (Campinha-Bacote, 1999). 1. Cultural Awareness:
The ability for health care providers to appreciate and understand their patients' "values, beliefs, life ways, practices, and problem solving strategies." Self-awareness is also a vital part of this. This allows health care providers to analyze their own beliefs to avoid bias and prejudice when working with clients (Campinha-Bacote, 1999). 2. Cultural Knowledge:
The ability for health care providers to have an educated knowledge base about various cultures to better understand their clients. It also requires health care providers to be knowledgeable about "physical, biological, and physiological variations" among cultural groups...