Transcultural Nursing

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Multicultural Nursing in Malaysia.

Introduction.

Malaysian is multi religious and multicultural country. In Malaysia, there are

many cultural belief according to the race of people in Malaysia liked Malays

,Chinese ,Indian ,Bengali ,Pakistani ,Sarawak and there are divided into different sub-

group of ethnic and states and they also speak different languages and have different

cultures and trust . It is important to us, as health care providers to became culturally

aware and understand why people of different cultures have different health care needs

and require different approached to health care.

What is the different between culture, race, and ethnicity? Culture is a value

,beliefs ,and practices of a particular group ; ( Giger and Davidhizar,1995 ) incorporates

the attitudes and customs that are learned by socialization with others . They are passed

on from one generation to the next generation .The components of any cultural group

include to it’s language ,communication style ,traditions, religion ,art ,music ,manner of

dress ,health beliefs and health practices .

Race or biologic variations is a term to categorize people with genetically shared

physical characteristics for example include the skin color ,eye shape ,and hair texture. In

Malaysia normally we can recognize people in different race according to the skin color

,like Indian people normally in black skin color ,Chinese in white skin color and Malay

people normally in natural skin color. Normally, people who lives in a village like `orang

asli` ,we can recognize them thru the hair types. Normally these type of people have a

curly hair and dark skin and they also have the own dress that make them different to

another race and culture.

Ethnicity related to one’s social identity (Erikson 1993, Leininger 1995a) like

cultural practices , religious rituals, language used , as well as the types of food and

clothing .It’s also described as a sense of community transmitted over generations by

families. It provide an individual the basis by which “self” can be defined

Rampushenki, 1989).Ethnicity is a part of humankind come from membership through

birth in a racial, religious and subgroups with it’s associated culture.( Hartog &

Hartog, 1983, p.911).

Trans-cultural Nursing.

Tran -cultural nursing provide nursing care with the context of another culture.

It’s includes the assessment of a cultural nature, acceptance of health problems that affect

particular cultural groups and it’s also help us to planning care within the patient health

belief systems to achieve the best health outcomes.

To provide culturally sensitive, nurses should have skilled at managing language

differences ,understanding biologic and physiologic( race and ethnicity) variations

,promoting health teaching that will reduce prevalent diseases and respect what ever

health belief or health practices that the patient have. To give culturally care to the patient

,the nurse must collect data about language and communications style , hygiene practices

including feelings and how they accepting help from another person , religion and

religious practices ,rituals surrounding birth ,passage from adolescence to adulthood

,illness and death ,family and gender roles ,proper forms of greeting and showing respect

to the patient ,method for making decision and the last one and most important thing is

health belief and medical practices. Every society has its own health culture .This health

culture is identified as the traditional way a society copes with the illness and maintain

well- being. Individuals and family feels more comfortable with their own values and

views of life .Health culture defines the following factors ; health ,illness ,disease cause

,healer’s role ,sick role...
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