Malaysian is multi religious and multicultural country. In Malaysia, there are
many cultural belief according to the race of people in Malaysia liked Malays
,Chinese ,Indian ,Bengali ,Pakistani ,Sarawak and there are divided into different sub-
group of ethnic and states and they also speak different languages and have different
cultures and trust . It is important to us, as health care providers to became culturally
aware and understand why people of different cultures have different health care needs
and require different approached to health care.
What is the different between culture, race, and ethnicity? Culture is a value
,beliefs ,and practices of a particular group ; ( Giger and Davidhizar,1995 ) incorporates
the attitudes and customs that are learned by socialization with others . They are passed
on from one generation to the next generation .The components of any cultural group
include to it’s language ,communication style ,traditions, religion ,art ,music ,manner of
dress ,health beliefs and health practices .
Race or biologic variations is a term to categorize people with genetically shared
physical characteristics for example include the skin color ,eye shape ,and hair texture. In
Malaysia normally we can recognize people in different race according to the skin color
,like Indian people normally in black skin color ,Chinese in white skin color and Malay
people normally in natural skin color. Normally, people who lives in a village like `orang
asli` ,we can recognize them thru the hair types. Normally these type of people have a
curly hair and dark skin and they also have the own dress that make them different to
another race and culture.
Ethnicity related to one’s social identity (Erikson 1993, Leininger 1995a) like
cultural practices , religious rituals, language used , as well as the types of food and
clothing .It’s also described as a sense of community transmitted over generations by
families. It provide an individual the basis by which “self” can be defined
Rampushenki, 1989).Ethnicity is a part of humankind come from membership through
birth in a racial, religious and subgroups with it’s associated culture.( Hartog &
Hartog, 1983, p.911).
Tran -cultural nursing provide nursing care with the context of another culture.
It’s includes the assessment of a cultural nature, acceptance of health problems that affect
particular cultural groups and it’s also help us to planning care within the patient health
belief systems to achieve the best health outcomes.
To provide culturally sensitive, nurses should have skilled at managing language
differences ,understanding biologic and physiologic( race and ethnicity) variations
,promoting health teaching that will reduce prevalent diseases and respect what ever
health belief or health practices that the patient have. To give culturally care to the patient
,the nurse must collect data about language and communications style , hygiene practices
including feelings and how they accepting help from another person , religion and
religious practices ,rituals surrounding birth ,passage from adolescence to adulthood
,illness and death ,family and gender roles ,proper forms of greeting and showing respect
to the patient ,method for making decision and the last one and most important thing is
health belief and medical practices. Every society has its own health culture .This health
culture is identified as the traditional way a society copes with the illness and maintain
well- being. Individuals and family feels more comfortable with their own values and
views of life .Health culture defines the following factors ; health ,illness ,disease cause
,healer’s role ,sick role...