HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPENT PROJECT
Effective training practices involve the use of training design process. The design process begins with a needs assessment. Subsequent steps in the process include ensuring that employees have the motivation and basic skills necessary to learn, creating a positive learning environment, making sure that trainees use learned skills on the job, choosing the training method, and evaluating whether training achieved the desired outcomes. Needs assessment refers to the process used to determine whether training is necessary. It typically involves organizational analysis, person analysis and task analysis. If needs assessment is not properly conducted any one or more of the following situations could occur:
Training may be incorrectly used as a solution to a performance problem.
Training program may have the wrong content, objectives, or methods.
Trainees may be sent to training programs for which they do not have the basic skills, prerequisite skills, or confidence needed to learn.
Training will not deliver the expected learning, behavior change, or financial results that the company expects.
Money will be spent on training programs that are unnecessary because they are unrelated to the company business strategy.
There are five main phases in the systematic approach to training. They are Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. A. Analysis
The first questions that were asked are "Is there a need for training?" and "If something is wrong, is it caused by a performance problem that training will fix?" In the analysis phase the deliverables of the job holder are identified and listed. The tasks that must be done to accomplish the duties are analyzed. The tasks are broken into smaller parts called task elements. From the tasks and elements we have determined the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to successfully perform the task. Tasks are reviewed and characterized by difficulty, importance, and frequency to help determine whether training is required prior to performing the task. These groupings also helped us select tasks on which workers will receive continuing training. The outcome of the analysis phase is a task analysis that lists the tasks that are performed to accomplish the duties of a position and the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to perform the tasks. These become the basis for the design of the training course and for writing the learning objectives. B. Design
The design phase is a decision making phase. In the design phase we complete three important activities: 1. We decide what the participants will learn in the class and how that learning will be transferred to the job. From this activity we write participants’ learning objectives. 2. We decide what will be taught and the instructional methods to be used to teach. 3. We decide how the participants will demonstrate competency to do the required work.
Learning objectives are broken into two types. Terminal objectives explain what the participants must be able to do after training on the job. Specific learning objectives tell what knowledge, skills, and attitudes must be displayed during class. Participants are given the learning objectives at the beginning of class so they know exactly what we expect them to learn. The learning objectives are based upon the results of the analysis phase. The design phase also determines what will be taught and how it will be taught. In this phase we select the instructional technology and the media to be used. The instructional technology includes some combination of the following: hands on practice, lecture, overhead projectors, training equipment, student reading, and on the job training.
Managers from the operating group approve the design before the...