2. Analysing the human resources
3. Analysing efficiency indices
4. Analysing the organizational climate
The results of these analyses are then compared with the objectives of the organization. These comparisons point to specific areas in which training is needed. Individual analysis aims at identifying specific training needs for an individual or group of employees so that training can be tailored to their needs. This analysis centres on individuals and their specific needs concerning the skills, knowledge, or attitudes they must develop to perform their assigned tasks. The possible methods or techniques for individual analysis include performance appraisal, interviews, questionnaires, tests, analysis of behaviour, informal talks, checklist, counseling, critical incidents, recording, surveys, and observations. Group analysis includes a number of techniques in which a group of well-informed employees discuss different aspects of the organization, the employees, and the tasks to identify the major discrepancies in achieving predetermined targets for each of them with a view to assessing training needs as distinguished from other necessary changes for removing these discrepancies. The major techniques which are used in this approach are brainstorming, buzzing, cardsorts, advisory committee, conferences, problem clinic, role playing, simulation, task forces, workshops, and so forth.
Many problems exist in an organization, but some problems cannot be solved by training. After a preliminary needs analysis, which gives probable causes and solutions, the results should be verified with the concerned personnel of the organization to determine whether training is an appropriate action to solve that problem. Curriculum Development. This is the most important part in a training programme after a need for training has been identified. The curriculum specifies what will be taught and how it will be taught. It provides the framework and foundation of training. The first phase of curriculum development determines what will be taught, that is, the training content. Once training needs have been identified and training activities have been decided as part of the solution, a needs analysis should be done to determine knowledge, skills, and attitude requirements and performance deficiencies. The needs analysis procedure involves breaking down the "training problem" into its basic parts in different successive phases to identify and understand the important components in each phase. Ultimately it leads to identifying and understanding the training content. The training needs analysis process can be divided into three distinct analytical phases: job analysis, task analysis, and knowledge and skill-gap analysis. A. Job analysis. Job analysis is a method of determining major areas of tasks where training may be needed (see JA Worksheet). It involves the dissecting of a job into its component events or parts. This analysis allows a trainer to better understand what an employee does in an organization. Job analysis involves the "task identification" of a particular job (Wentling, 1992). The techniques used in task identification include job questionnaire, interview, participant observation, work sampling, job audit, and small-group discussion. The following steps may provide a guide for completion of job analysis: 1. Identify the job that is to be the subject of the analysis. This involves defining the focal...