In the field of Human Resource Management, training and development is the field which is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee development, human resource development, and learning and development. Training and development (T&D) encompasses three main activities: Training, Education, and Development. Garavan, Costine, and Heraty, of the Irish Institute of Training and Development, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, activities:
The principle objective of training and development division is to ensure availability of a skilled and willing work force to an organization. Training and development is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change take place in structured format. It offers competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies; making employees stay long; minimized accidents, scraps and damage; and meeting future employee needs.
Training is a specialized function of human resource management. Every organization needs to have well trained people to perform the activities. As jobs have become more complex, it is necessary to raise the skill level of employees. Training is important to organizations because it can make the accomplishment of overall goals possible. Training can convert ‘raw’ human resource into ‘developed’ human resources-knowledgeable and skilled employees. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.
Need and reasons for training The efficiency of any organization depends directly on how well its employees are trained. Training has become a ‘necessity’ in industrial organizations on account of the following reasons: 1.Job Requirements-
New employees require detailed instructions and training for effective performance on the jobs. Employees selected might lack the required qualifications and skills for a particular job. New entrants also need to provide orientation to make them familiar with the working conditions and the organization. 2.Technological Changes-
Technology is changing very fast. Mechanization is increasingly used in offices and factory jobs. Thus, increasing use of fast changing techniques and work methods requires training into new technology. New jobs require new skills. No organization can miss the advantages of latest technology without well trained employees. 3. Organizational Viability-
Trained employees are the valuable assets of a company. But the skills of men become outdated due to fast changing conditions in the market and economy. Over the passage of time, employees suffer from personal obsolescence. Their knowledge becomes old. Hence, existing employees need refresher training to keep them abreast of new knowledge.
4. Increasing competition-
Due to economic liberalization and globalization the firms are experiencing expansion and diversification of business and products. The keen competition has increased uncertainties and complexities in the market. Thus, in order to face international competition, the firms must improve their capabilities. It necessitated acquisition of new skills through training. 5. Change in Job Assignment-
Training becomes necessary when an employee moves from one job to another due to promotion or transfer. Employees chosen for higher level jobs also need training. Training is also necessary to equip the old employees with the advanced disciplines, principles, and concepts. When somebody is asked to perform the higher responsibilities, he is given training. 6. Human Relations Approach-
In this age of industrial democracy, employees are partners rather than servants. Modern...