Training Literature Review

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LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 DEFINITION OF TRAINING
Noe R.A (2005:03) has defined training as “a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job related competencies. These competencies include knowledge, skills or behaviours that are critical for successful jo performance. The goal of training is for employees to master the knowledge, skill, and behaviours emphasized in training programs and to apply them to their day to day activities.” De Cenzo and Robbins (1994:255) define training as “a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job.” Armstrong (1995:355) defines training as the planned and systematic modification of behaviour through learning events, programmes and instruction, which enable individuals to achieve the levels of knowledge, skill and competence needed to carry out their work effectively. 2.2 DEFINATION OF DEVELOPMENT

Development is aimed at employee serving in a managerial capacity for preparing managerial posts within an Organisation. It can be seen as a process by which managers obtain the necessary experience, skills and attitudes to become or remain a successful leader in the Organisation. (Nel et al 2000; 469). Development focuses on the on future jobs in an Organisation. As the individuals career progresses new skills and abilities are required. Development thus, refers to development possibilities within a job or position for a specific employee, with reference to the employee’s personal growth and personal goals ( De Cenzo and Robbins 1994; 255) .Development is sometimes called Management Development as it focuses on future managers. According, to Beach (1985: 480) Management Development is a systematic process of training and growth by which individuals gain and apply knowledge, skills, insights and attitudes to manage work Organisation efficiently. 2.3 SYSTEMATIC TRAINING POCESS

The training process refers to a...
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