Training in Organisation

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Training
Training is a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization.

Human resource development is the study and practice of increasing the learning capacity of individuals, groups, collectives, and organizations through the development and application of learning-based interventions for the purpose of optimizing human and organizational growth and effectiveness.

Chalofsky (Page 9)
Purpose for training:
1) To Match the Employees Specification with the Job requirements and Organizational Needs: Management finds deviation between employee’s present specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs. Training is needed to fill these gaps by developing and moulding the employee’s skills and knowledge, attitude, behavior etc. to tune the job requirements and organizational needs. 2) Organizational Viability and Transformation Process:

The organization constantly needs to adapt to the changing business environment, or else it will lose its market share. If the organization desires to adapt these changes, first it has to train the employee to impart specific skills and knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to organizational efficiency and cope up with changing environment. 3) Technological Advances:

Adoption of latest technology means and methods will not be complete until they are manned by employees possessing skills to operate them. 4) Organizational Complexity:
Employees need to be trained in the skills of co-ordination, integration and adaptability to the requirements of growth, diversification and expansion. 5) Human Relations: Today management of most of the organization has to maintain human relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations. So, training in human relations is necessary to deal with human problems and to maintain human relations. 6) Change in Job Assignment: Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promoted to the higher level in the organization and when there is some new job or occupation due to transfer. Stages in training:

1) Identify needs: Difference between actual and required human performance at work forms the basis of training-A.H. Anderson 2) Evaluate needs
3) Select Courses
4) Develop Courses
5) Determine workload
6) Select trainer
7) Develop trainers
8) Certify trainers
9) Identify location and resources
10) Finalize budget
11) Finalize training plan
12) Pre-course administration
13) Prepare Course
14) Deliver Course
15) Validate training
16) Post-course administration
17) Transfer Learning
18) Evaluate training
19) Revise courses
Methods of Training:
I. Cognitive Training: Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:

1. Lectures: This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic 2. Demonstrations: This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. 3. Discussions: This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported, elaborated, explains, or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the...
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