Training and Development
Khan Sarfaraz Ali
Training and development encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development. Garavan, Costine, and Heraty, of the Irish Institute of Training and Development, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, activities:[i] Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds. Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs. Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate.[ii]
Training is a sequence of experiences or opportunities designed to modify behavior in order to attain a stated objective (Hesseling). Training is any activity which deliberately, attempts to improve a person’s skill at a task (Oatey). Training is accepted as a synonym for all of the forms of knowledge, skill and attitudinal development which adults need to keep pace with accelerating life involvement and the enlarging concept of man’s capabilities (Steinmetz). On the other hand, development refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow.
Distinction between Training and Development
Though training and development are interrelated there are some distinctive arguments that distinguish these concepts. a) Training is the act of increasing the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of an employee for doing a particular job. Development refers to learning opportunities designed to improve the overall personality of an individual; b) The focus of training is on the immediate period to help fix any current deficits in employees’ skills. The focus of development is on the long term to help employees prepare for future work demands or career goals; c) Training is a one-shot affair. Development is a continuous process; d) The initiative for training comes from management. To put it differently, training is the result of external motivation. The initiative for development comes from the individual himself. To put it differently, development is the result of internal motivation.
Objectives of Formal Training
The ultimate objectives of formal training are to assist in -
Training needs assessment
Developing the ability of the participants
A training cycle is a combination of six components. It starts with Training needs assessment (TNA)( and ends with evaluation. Objective setting helps to understand how the learner will be benefited from the course and how the course will be measured. Course designing solve the questions like: what is the best way to present the course information? How to make learning more effective? Curriculum development focuses on what will be the contents, texts, and media in a training program. Implementation stage deals with how the actual delivery will be handled. Evaluation line up how the effort will be evaluated during or after the training.
Training Needs Assessment (TNA)
Training Needs Assessment (TNA) is a process of identifying the performance problem and making a distinction between those that are responsive to training solutions and those that require other forms of solutions. TNA is expressed as the analysis of gap or difference of the actual performance from the standard performance. In TNA few questions are solved. They are: i) is Training Needed?
ii) what sort of knowledge and skill should be introduced?
iii) can the program be justified in terms of cost?
= something is lacking or there is a shortfall somewhere Training
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