To What Extent Can We Attribute High Individual Performance To Employee Training, Learning And Development?
Word Count: 1,946
In this composition, we explore the relationship between training and learning, and to what extent is affects individual job performance. Before we look into that, we define job performance as “the value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute, either positively or negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment” (Colquitt et al, 2009: 37). Bratton et el (2007) defines learning as “the process of constructing new knowledge and it’s ongoing reinforcement”. Firstly, we investigate how organizations view the importance of training and whether or not this is the only way to improve job performance. It is understood that there are other factors surrounded the improvement on performance, which will be explained in further detail. A research study has also been conducted to prove the hypothesis that these such factors very well may be involved and linked as a whole to the improvement of individual performance. Contradicting this belief, views have been added, made by various authors whom disagree with this and believe that training alone can be a factor to improve job performance. Additionally, we also take a look at the affects of learning on an organization and its employees.
Organizations in times of inefficient job performance tend to spend a great deal of money and time providing employees with top-quality training. “Organizations spend over $29 billion per year on employee training” (Feuer, 1987). A needs analysis is conducted within the company to develop specified training programs for that particular organization. This often can have little or no effect on an employee’s performance and management tends to blame the trainer for the lack of results shown. When training is ineffective, the source of the issue may be coming from within the company. There are various factors stating the effect on job performance as a whole. These factors can include feedback, environment, knowledge and skill, motivation, ability and standards. Out of these factors, there is only one that can be improved through training – knowledge and skill. If any of the other factors are the cause of decrease in job performance, management needs to focus their attention on correcting that particular aspect. It is believed that if an employee is dissatisfied with or if one or more of these factors do not meet their standards, he/she will not illustrate high job performance. For example total work motivation = extrinsic work motivation + intrinsic motivation. If an individual does not have the goals or aims needed to motive himself, or the incentives to drive his ability to higher performance, there may be a lack there of. What some organizations fail to comprehend is that these factors are linked together in the improvement of job performance. By having an insight on each of these aspects, the company will have a greater knowledge on how to strengthen employee performance.
Feedback – this effectively communicates the performance of an employee measured through guidelines and tools. There is also multi-rater feedback, also known as 360-degree feedback that uses a survey about business skills and behaviors specific to the employee’s organizational role. This can help bring awareness to strengths and highlight weaknesses. Coupled with training this can prove to be effective.
Environment – Individuals relationships and interactions within an organization should not be underestimated. According to Schneider (1987), "the people make the place". A good working environment is believed to have positive effects on work behavior and job performance.
Knowledge, Skills & Ability (KSA’s) – these are the attributes to perform efficiently, have the capacity to learn and to implement these acquired expertise into performing a particular task.
Motivation – Motivation can either be intrinsic or...
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