Training and Development Staff:
DANIEL OKOROAFOR.. 08066251732
Training and development refer to programs designed to help new employees adjust to the workplace successfully. In addition, they include the formal ongoing efforts of corporations and other organizations to improve the performance and self-fulfillment of their employees through a variety of methods and programs. In the modem workplace, these efforts have taken on a broad range of applications, from training in highly specific job skills to long-term professional development, and are applicable to all sorts of employees ranging from line workers to the chief executive officer. Training and development have emerged as formal corporate functions, integral elements of corporate strategy, and are recognized as professions with distinct theories and methodologies as companies increasingly acknowledge the fundamental importance of employee growth and development, as well as the necessity of a highly skilled workforce, in order to improve the success and efficiency of their organizations. For the most part, training and development are used together to bring about the overall acclimation, improvement, and education of an organization's employees. While closely related, there are important differences between the terms and the scope of each. In general, training programs have very specific and quantifiable goals, such as operating a particular piece of machinery, understanding a specific process, or performing certain procedures with great precision. On the other hand, developmental programs concentrate on broader skills that are applicable to a wider variety of situations, such as decision making, leadership skills, and goal setting. In short, training programs are typically tied to a particular subject matter and are applicable to that subject only, while developmental programs center on cultivating and enriching broader skills useful in numerous contexts. HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS
The apprenticeship system emerged in ancient cultures to provide a structured approach to the training of unskilled workers by master craftsmen. This system was marked by three distinct stages: the unskilled novice, the journeyman or yeoman, and finally, the master craftsman. Together, they formed an "organic" process whereby the novice "grew" into a master craftsman over a period of years. With the onset of the Industrial Age, the training of the unskilled underwent a dramatic transformation in which vocational education and training emerged to replace the traditional apprentice system. The division of labor in an industrial factory resulted in specific job tasks that required equally specific training in a much shorter time span. As training activities grew more methodical and focused, the first recognizable modern training methods began to develop during the 19th and early 20th centuries: gaming simulations became an important tool in the Prussian military during the early 1800s and pyschodrama and role playing were developed by Dr. J. L. Moreno of Vienna, Austria, in 1910. The early 20th century witnessed the emergence of training and development as a profession, resulting in the creation of training associations and societies, the advent of the assembly line requiring greater specificity in training, and the dramatic training requirements of the world wars. Important groups forming during this period include the American Management Association in 1923 (which began as the National Association of Corporation Schools in 1913), and the National Management Association in 1956 (which began as the National Association of Foremen in 1925). At the same time, Henry Ford (1863-1947) introduced the assembly line at his Highland Park, Michigan, plant. Because the assembly line created an even greater division of labor, along with an unprecedented need for precision and teamwork, job tasks and assignments required more highly specific and focused training than ever...