The most important factor for the success of an organisation is the ability of the people it employs. In today’s world where vast technological, political, social, and economical changes take place, organisations have to be able to cope with these changes effectively. The changing force of competition, both domestic and global, compels organisations to innovate and use their resources in the most efficient way possible in order to remain competitive . This new situation does not only force organisations but also their people to change. Existing and potential employees have to be aware of the new technological and socio-economical status in order to be capable to perform well. The best way that organisations can ensure this knowledge is by using training and development. “Training and development are critical to organisations because they provide the skills both now and in the future. Together, training and retraining ensure the skills and employee commitment needed for high quality goods and services and thus, competitiveness and survival”.
What is training and development?
As I. L. Goldstein and P. Gilliam state : “Employee training and development is any attempt to improve future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform” . There is a variety of reasons why training is needed in an organisation, whether it be immediately or through long-term anticipation and planning. Sometimes organisations develop new products which require technologies not known by the employees. Other times employees are transferred or promoted to jobs which require new skills and knowledge. Job redesign and technological change produce the need for employees to learn more skills. Finally, new employees must often be trained so they can successfully perform their new job tasks . Helping employees become effective in their jobs is one of the most important tasks in Human Resource Management that any work organisation has to undertake. Employers depend on the quality of their employees’ performance to achieve organisational aims and objectives, and employees have motivational needs for development, recognition, status, and achievement that can be met through job satisfaction . Many times these aims differ and clash with each other, but if they are managed properly they can coexist and be both achieved. Mark Singer gives the following definition of training : “Training entails the use of prepared programs which reinforce employees’ existing competencies or facilitate the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, and abilities in the interest of improving job performance” .
The organisation’s aims of training and development
An organisation’s main goal is maximisation of profits, which is always achieved by increasing productivity. Training and development are suitable means of making employees more productive. A major aim of training and development is to remove performance deficiencies, whether these are current or anticipated, that cause employees to perform at less than the designed level. Organisations with static or declining rates of productivity are the ones who need most training and development for the improvement of their performance. What is more, training is important to organisations that adopt new technologies and therefore employ staff whose knowledge has become obsolete. Another aim of an organisation is to increase its employees’ level of commitment to it, as well as their perception that the organisation is a good place to work to. Increased commitment results in less turnover and absenteeism which consequently results in increased productivity. Furthermore, organisations use training and development because they aim at increasing employees’ potential. “The term potential implies capability of future performance, given adequate development.” The organisation’s success...