The following seminar paper on crime prevention on the issue of trafficking of minor girls in India would try to explain the issue and the graveness of the issue looking at its scope, types, nature of the problem. The paper would then look into the existing legal framework to deal with the issue and other social control mechanism which are in place. Finally the paper would try to look into successful implementation strategies and loopholes and try to address the issue from a social worker’s point of view.
SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM: defining the issue of minor girl trafficking in India in the ambit of larger problem of human trafficking:
The internationally agreed upon definition of trafficking is defined in the UN protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in person specially women and children- “The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation". Thus the elements of trafficking: * The Act (What is done)
* Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons * The Means (How it is done)
* Threat or use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or vulnerability, or giving payments or benefits to a person in control of the victim * The Purpose (Why it is done)
* For the purpose of exploitation, which includes exploiting the prostitution of others, sexual exploitation, forced labour, slavery or similar practices and the removal of organs
Trafficking is a violation of human rights. Victims of trafficking suffer from physical and mental abuse and social stigmatization. They become isolated, losing ties with their former lives and families. At the societal level, trafficking undermines development efforts and raises social and health costs. The ongoing abuses of human rights and the growing social and economic inequality within and between countries has led to an environment in which many women have few choices and resources, and are thus vulnerable to being lured, mislead or forced into being trafficked. Trafficking in persons is a multidimensional form of exploitation. Trafficking involves many forms of exploitation, including violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms, forced labor, debt bondage, exploitation of migrants and migrant workers, forced labor, labor exploitation, sexual exploitation, violence and discrimination against women and the sexual, labor and other exploitation of children. Trafficking is also itself a form of exploitation. Each form of exploitation falls within one or several dimensions – including human rights, slavery and slavery-like practices, trafficking, migration, labor, gender, child, law enforcement and legal – each of which has its own conceptual, legal and other frameworks. Additionally, there are multiple types of trafficking: of children, women or men; internally from rural to urban areas and internationally across national boundaries; for legal labor and for illegal labor; involving complete force to some level of consent at any one of its stages. Each different type of trafficking has different dimensions. Not only does trafficking in persons have multiple dimensions, but each can have other implications at each stage of the trafficking spectrum which are prevention, protection, recovery, rehabilitation, reintegration, return, repatriation and prosecution of traffickers. For instance, measures for prevention and protection have implications on human rights and gender. Measures for repatriation and return impacts on migration. Measures for recovery impact on gender and child dimensions. Thus the problem of...