Agricultural Machinery Industry in India (Manufacturing, marketing and mechanization promotion) Gyanendra Singh Director, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal ABSTRACT Farm mechanization helps in effective utilization of inputs to increase the productivity of land and labour. Besides it helps in reducing the drudgery in farm operations. The early agricultural mechanization in India was greatly influenced by the technological development in England. Irrigation pumps, tillage equipment, chaff cutters, tractors and threshers were gradually introduced for farm mechanization. The high yielding varieties with assured irrigation and higher rate of application of fertilizers gave higher returns that enabled farmers to adopt mechanization inputs, especially after Green revolution in 1960s. The development of power thresher in 1960, with integrated Bhusa making attachment and aspirator blower and mechanical sieves for grain and straw separation, was the major achievement of Indian engineers. These threshers were widely adopted by the farmers. Gradually demand for other farm machinery such as reapers and combine harvesters also increased. Equipment for tillage, sowing, irrigation, plant protection and threshing have been widely accepted by the farmers. Even farmers with small holdings utilize many improved farm equipment through custom hiring to ensure timeliness of farming operations. The present trend in agricultural mechanization is for high capacity machines through custom hiring and for contractual field operations. However, mechanization of horticulture, plantation crops and commercial agriculture is yet to be introduced in the country. The pace of farm mechanization in the country accelerated with the manufacture of agricultural equipment by the local industries. With the modest beginning of manufacture of tractors in 1960s with foreign collaboration, to-day the Indian farm machinery industries meet the bulk of the requirement of mechanization inputs and also export. The manufacture of agricultural machinery in India is quite complex comprising of village artisans, tiny units, small-scale industries, State Agro-Industrial Development Corporations and organized tractor, engine and processing equipment industries. Traditional hand tools and bullock drawn implements are largely fabricated by village craftsmen (blacksmith and carpenters) and small-scale industries. The smallscale industries depend upon public institutions for technological support. These industries, however, upgrade these designs and production processes with experience. Organized sectors confine to the manufacture of machines like tractors, engines, milling and dairying equipment. These industries have adopted sophisticated production technologies, and some of them match international standards. The enhanced scope of import of technology (product designs and manufacturing process) by organized sector and entry of foreign investors is likely to accelerate exports. Since cost of production of farm machinery in India is more competitive due to lower labour wages, the importers from various Countries will find Indian farm equipment more attractive. Indian products, however, shall need improvements in quality for gaining major export growth. For this, mass production of critical and fast wearing components and their standardization would greatly help.
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AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY INDUSTRY IN INDIA
This paper reviews the status of agricultural mechanization in India, including the aspects of production of implements and equipment, after- sales- services, level of their adoption and the role of different public and private Institutions in supporting and promoting this critical input for making Indian agriculture to meet the international challenges of productivity and cost of production.
1. INTRODUCTION The country witnessed unprecedented growth in agriculture which has helped India to graduate from...