Mobile positioning technology has become an important area of research, for emergency as well as for commercial services. Mobile positioning in cellular networks will provide several services such as, locating stolen mobiles, emergency calls, different billing tariffs depending on where the call is originated, and methods to predict the user movement inside a region. The evolution to location-dependent services and applications in wireless systems continues to require the development of more accurate and reliable mobile positioning technologies. The major challenge to accurate location estimation is in creating techniques that yield acceptable performance when the direct path from the transmitter to the receiver is intermittently blocked. This is the Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) problem, and it is known to be a major source of error since it systematically causes mobile to appear farther away from the base station (BS) than it actually is, thereby increasing the positioning error. In this paper, we present a simple method for mobile telephone tracking and positioning with high accuracy. Through this we will discuss some technology used for mobile positioning and tracking 1.INTRODUCTION TO MOBILE TECHNOLOGY
Configuration of a typical mobile telecommunication network. As shown in Figure 3, the mobile telecommunication network includes a several base stations (BSs) T 1 to T N for providing mobile telecommunication service to a mobile subscriber through a mobile telephone M1, a base station controller (BSC) for controlling the BSs T 1 to T N, and a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) for connecting the BSC to another BTS or a PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).
In a cellular mobile telecommunication network, the whole service area is divided into a several coverage areas having respective base stations (BS). Each BS coverage area is called a "cell." Each BS is provided with a frequency of a range between 450 to900 MHz. More than one cells can use same frequency. Only condition is that no two adjacent cells must have same frequencies. An MTSO controls these BSs so that a subscriber can continue his call without interruption while moving between different cells. The MTSO can reduce the time required for calling a subscriber by locating the cell of the subscriber. In case of an emergency like a fire, or a patient needing first aid treatment, the mobile subscriber should be accurately located. Tracking the location of a mobile subscriber within the boundary of a cell in a mobile telecommunication network is known as "location based services Mobile technology includes mainly two functions. They are call fixing and hands-off process. All the BSs are sending a signal of power 25 to 30w to the mobile unit. When a user switches ON his mobile, it will search for the strongest signal and got connected to that BS. Then the mobile unit sends an identification signal to the BS. When he fixes a call, the BS accepts the request and sends the request to the BSC and MTSO. Then the MTSO will searches where the subscriber is and connects the call. When a user moves to another cell the MTSO will change the frequency allotted to it and allots the frequency of the new BS.For both these processes GEOLOCATION of the mobile unit is essential. 2. NEED FOR GEOLOCATION
One of the most powerful ways to personalize mobile services is based on location. The location based services, provides the subscribers very best of the service. Recent demands from new applications require positioning capabilities of mobile telephones or other devices. The ability to obtain the geo-location of the Mobile Telephone (MT) in the cellular system allows the network operators to facilitate new services to the mobile users. The most immediate motivation for the cellular system to provide MT position is enhanced in accident emergency services. The geolocation of the mobile user could provide services like
Emergency service for subscriber...