Quality starts with market research – to establish the true requirements for the product or service and the true needs of the customers. However, for an organization to be really effective, quality must span all functions, all people, all departments and all activities and be a common language for improvement. The cooperation of everyone at every interface is necessary to achieve a total quality organization. A frequently used definition of quality is “Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and expectations”. These may include performance, appearance, availability, delivery, reliability, maintainability, cost effectiveness and price. It is, therefore, imperative that the organization knows what these needs and expectations are. In addition, having identified them, the organization must understand them, and measure its own ability to meet them
Quality control, was born in the U.S., and Japan, in its high economic growth period, imported and developed that concept as Total Quality Control (TQC), which later evolved as Total Quality Management (TQM)., TQM is not a tool merely for big companies or the manufacturing sector; it is a way of managerial thinking for any type of corporation. The Quality Control Circle (QCC) method, a Japanese-made institutional development tool by which employees continuously strive for improvement in their work, usually functions as an integral part of TQM. More generally speaking, the QCC method can serve to enhance people’s problem-solving skills in organizations that have not yet introduced TQM as a leading management policy: not only in profit-making organizations but also in non-profit organizations, public administration, associations, and any voluntary group. However, QCC functions best as part of TQM, and company-wide quality management through TQM is the most effective way to sustain QCC activities in an organization. Are TQM and QCC Japanese things? Are they effective only in some cultures in the world? Our answer is a firm, “No!” They are not and should not be perceived to have such a narrow scope. Our firm belief is that they are applicable anywhere because they invoke universal values, and this is why this handbook has been produced. In our view, TQM and QCC values are much more than so-called Japanese management. Pursuit of quality management never stops. We face more and more tasks in controlling and improving quality in the increasingly integrated world. Requirements of the ISO9000 series are representative of that truth. We are certain that TQM and QCC can contribute tremendously to any institution that has become conscious about quality management, including those doing so through compliance with the ISO 9000 series. TQM is the way of managing for the future, and is far wider in its application than just assuring product or service quality – it is a way of managing people and business processes to ensure complete customer satisfaction at every stage, internally and externally. TQM, combined with effective leadership, results in an organization doing the right things right, first time.
The core of TQM is the customer-supplier interfaces, both externally and internally, and at each interface lays a number of processes. This core must be surrounded by commitment to quality, communication of the quality message, and recognition of the need to change the culture of the organization to create total Quality. These are the foundations of TQM, and they are supported by the key management functions of people, processes and systems in the organization. This section discusses each of these elements that, together, can make a total quality organization. Other sections...