Tqm Exam Notes

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Chapter (1)

Definition of Quality:
The quality of a product (article or service) is its ability to satisfy or exceed customers’ needs and expectations. “Bergman and Klefsjö”

Customers are: those we want to produce value/s to.

Quality Dimensions:
8-Quality dimensions of a good: (Pressed Factory)
1- Performance: such as speed, capacity, useful life, size. 2- Reliability: Is a measure of how often problems occur and how serious they are. 3- Environmental Impact: A measure of the product affects the environment. 4- Safety: That the product is safe for persons and properties or offer protection. 5- Serviceability (Maintainability): How hard to find and fix problems in the product. 6- Durability: To use, store and transport the product without damage. 7- Flawlessness: That the product has no errors at the time of purchase. 8- Appearance: An aesthetic parameter for design, choice and color.

8-Quality dimensions of a service: (Create CRC)
1- Credibility: Being able to trust the supplier.
2- Reliability: Consistency of performance.
3- Empathy: To understand the customer’s situation.
4- Access: How easy to contact the supplier.
5- Tangibles: The appearance of the equipment and premises. 6- Communication: To communicate easily with the customer. 7- Responsiveness: willingness to help the customer.
8- Courtesy: Politeness & kindness of the supplier.

The Cornerstones of TQM:
5-cornerstones, including a committed leadership:

1- Focus on Customers:
Quality has to be valued by the customers, so it is important to find what the customers (External & Internal) need and to systematically try to fulfill these needs and expectations in the development and manufacturing of the product. 2- Base decisions on facts:

Is to structure and analyze information using the right tools to draw conclusions then base decisions on the resulted facts. 3- Focus on processes:
Is to identify what is needed in the process to minimize resources and satisfy its customers. And to collect information about how well the process is working and analyze it to improve the process.

4- Improve continuously:
The basic rule of continuous improvement is that there is always a way to get improved quality using less resources. So as a company improve it gets better customer benefit with less resources, so it is a win-win-work. 5- Let everyone be committed.

The management should support and stimulate their employees and suppliers through communication, delegation and training to allow participation in the work towards customer satisfaction and quality improvement.

Chapter 3
Deming’s 14 points:
1- Adopt and institute leadership.
2- Adopt the new philosophy.
3- Break down barriers between staff areas.
4- Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality.
5- Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and services. 6- Drive out fear.
7- Eliminate numerical quotas for the work force and numerical goals for the management. 8- Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the work force. 9- End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. Instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier. 10- Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service. 11- Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone. 12- Institute training on the job.

13- Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. 14- Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. Eliminate the annual rating or merit system.

The Quality movement as four phases:

The PDCA circle:
Plan
* Problem arises
* Establish the most essential cause
* Large scale problems needs to be divided into smaller * Base decisions on facts
* Brainstorming
* Cause and effect
* FMEA...
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