TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF IBM)
Assistant Professor, A.B.S.T., Shree Karni College, Jaipur.
A B S T R A C T
Every nation has its own independent historical and cultural background. The quality scenario, therefore, differs from one national setting to the other. The nations are orienting their quality management strategies and systems to meet the requirements of the operating environment though the primary focus remains the same, that is, Total Customer Satisfaction.Many of the present techniques of quality management were developed in Japan. However, U.S.A., European nations and developing nations have also contributed significantly to this development.
Introduction smoothly. Oakland  originated the idea of a 3ISO defines TQM as: “TQM is a management cornerstone model. The proposed 4-pillar model approach of an organization, centered on quality, based (Figure.1) brings the customer’s requirement into the on the participation of all its members and aiming at system. This makes the approach to TQM more long-term success through customer satisfaction, and complete. The additional pillar — benefits to all members of the organization and to satisfying customers — is vital society.” In Japanese, TQM comprises four process because it explicitly addresses steps, namely:1.Kaizen – Focuses on Continuous customers requirements. Without it Process Improvement, to make processes visible, TQM would have no objective. repeatable and measurable. 2.Atarimae Hinshitsu – Focuses on intangible effects on processes and ways to optimize and reduce their effects. 3.Kansei – Examining The Four Pillars of TQM the way the user applies the product leads to The role of top management in implementation of total improvement in the product itself. 4.Miryokuteki quality is crucial and its input on people far-reaching. Hinshitsu – Broadens management concern beyond TQM, therefore, should be understood as management of the system through systems thinking, which means the immediate product. TQM requires that the company understanding all the elements in the company and maintain this quality standard in all aspects of its putting them to work together business. This requires ensuring that things are done towards the common goal. The right the first time and that defects and waste are TQMEX Model advocates an eliminated from operations.Total Quality Management integrated approach in order to (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding support the transition to systems awareness of quality in all organizational processes. management which is an ongoing TQM has been widely used in manufacturing, education, process of continuous improvement government, and service industries, as well as NASA that begins when the company space and science programs. commits itself to managing by quality. THETQM MODEL: The Model illuminates the elements To achieve excellence, companies must develop a that form a base to the understanding of TQM corporate culture of treating people as their most philosophy and implementation of the process important asset and provide a consistent level of high company-wide. quality products and services in every market in which The Structure of TQMEX: they operate. Such an environment has supported the The Logic of TQMEX: wide acceptance of Total Quality Management (TQM) In order to have a systematic approach to TQM, it is which 22 emerged recently as a new, challenging, necessary to develop a conceptual model. Generally, a marketable philosophy. It involves three spheres of model is a sequence of steps arranged logically to serve changes in an organization — people, technology and as a guideline for implementation of a process in order structure. There is also a need for a systematic approach to achieve the ultimate goal. The model should be simple, so that each element of...