Brief review of the quality of Higher Education in Ancient India:
The system of higher educaton is started from the ancient times in India. During the ancient times, Education was closely linked with religon. It was taken up by Teachers as a labour of love and by the students as part of their training for culture and citizenshp. It was not universal education. In regard to higher instituton of learning - Tols (Higher Education) was developed among the Hindus and Madrassah (Higher Education) was existed among the Muslim. Although the Hindu and Muslims had separate learning institution, many features were common to both the types of institution.
Under the Buddhist rulers in India, Learning was fostered by the numerous monasteries under the guidance of monks and nuns. The Brahmanical system of education mainly centered at home of Individual Teacher was superseded by monasteries system of Buddhist education.
For the first time in India, and perhaps in the whole world, a great famous Buddhist seat of higher learning like Taxila, Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi Universities were flourished in India which can be compared with modern Universties. These Universities were better well organised than the Brahmanical higher education because they recieved state endowment for many centuries from the successive kings from the time of Buddha. The Universities introduced regular course of studies in different subjects and admission test for all students. There was no discrimination in admission and Technical Education and Women Education were also introduced as it recieved encouragement from the ruler and the rich people.
Amongst these Universities of ancient India, Nalanda Universities was take its specialities. Students from China, Nepal, Tibet, Korea etc came to study and obtain valuable knowledge. Entrance examination was very strict and only 20 percent of the candidates succeeded in getting admission during this period.
Brief review of Indian Education Commission in Modern India:
The system of higher education, which we find today in our country, started after the advent of the British in India. When the Brtish established their authority in India, they did not willing to take responsibility of educating the Indian people. In order to trained some Indians for minor jobs in the company’s office, they started schools and colleges. By the charter act of 1813, only one lakh of rupees for the improvement of the quality of education was left. The British rulers only established many government and private colleges and the higher education was in a very disorganise at the time.
Within a period of time, The British rulers realised that the necessity to organise and improved the quality of education and appointed Wood’s Despatched of 1854. As a result of the recommendations made by Wood’s Despatched of 1854, the Universities of Culcutta, Bombay and Madras were established n 1857 on the model of London University. On the model of the formers, Allahabad University was also established in 1882. But all universities performed the functioned of only conducting examinations and affiliating bodies and undertook no teaching and research.
In order to enquired the standard of Indian education and prepared recommendations, the Government of India appointed various Indian Education Commissions and selected eminent educationist as a members. Within a period of hunhred years, sixth Education Commissions were appointed. The recommendations of sixth Indian Education Commissions can be conveniently studied under the following:-
i) Indian Education Commission or Hunter Commisson, 1882:By accepting the recommendation of Hunter Commission 1882, the college education recieved a great impetus and a number of colleges were established during 1901-1902.
ii) Indian Universities Commission in 1902:During the period of Lord Curzon, University Education made a great progress. In...