The Influence Of Shopping Motivation, Optimum Stimulation Level And Cognitive Response On Store Patronage Satisfaction: A Case Of Indonesia Tjong Budisantoso, Notre Dame University Katherine Mizerski, Edith Cowan University Abstract This study focuses on the relationship between shopping motivation, optimum stimulation level and cognitive response and store patronage satisfaction. Shopping motivation focuses on the hedonic motivations for shopping while cognitive response is measured in terms of the perception of merchandise quality and the perception of service quality. The results indicate that a moderate relationship exists between shopping motivation and the perception of merchandise quality and service quality. In turn, these cognitive responses to shopping have a strong influence on store patronage satisfaction. Keywords: shopping motivation, optimum stimulation level, cognitive response, store patronage satisfaction Background Previous research has examined the relationship between store atmosphere and shopping behavior, however little attention has been given to investigating the influence of shopping motivation on in store-experience (Arnold and Reynolds, 2003). Motivation, however, is an important factor in explaining behavior (Lawson et al., 1996; Schiffman et al., 1997; Solomon, , 2002 and Neal et al., 2004) and influencing how people perceive the environment as well as how they process information (Lawson et al., 1996). Studies focusing on these areas have tended to examine the factors in isolation. In addition, the research that has been conducted has taken plaice in “western” settings. As newer markets continue to open, it is important for retailers to know if what has traditionally worked, is applicable in these newly developing markets. The current study attempts to address these issues. First, the study looks at a number of measures and proposes that shopping motivation (based on Arnold and Reynolds 2003 typology) and shopper’s optimum stimulation level (Lawson et al., 1996) will have an effect on the consumer’s cognitive response in the form of perceived merchandise and service quality (Baker et al. 1994, 2002). This cognitive response will in turn influence store patronage satisfaction. In addition, the current study will also extend previous research by examining these variables in an Indonesian setting, a setting previously unexplored in the retailing literature. Shopping Motivation This study uses the hedonic shopping motivation typology developed by Arnold and Reynolds (2003). These motivations are as follows: 1. Adventure shopping – shopping is viewed as an adventure 2. Social shopping – shoppers see the main purpose of shopping as an opportunity to socialise 3. Gratification shopping – shopping is used as a reward
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4. Idea shopping – this shopping is undertaken to provide the shopper with up-to-date information on products and trends 5. Role shopping - shopping motive relates to the shopper’s role in society 6. Value shopping – the purpose of this activity is to find a bargain 7. Anticipated utility - the aim of the shopping is to obtain the product. Shoppers expect to gain the utility offered by the product purchased. Optimum Stimulation Level The optimum stimulation level (OSL) illustrates how peoples’ affective state responds to the stimulation induced by the environment. According to this theory, the response follows an inverted U-shaped function. People who have a high OSL tend to be involved in activities that result in high levels of stimulation while a low OSL person would avoid a high stimulation activity. For them to achieve their optimum level, the low stimulation activity would be preferred. In the current study, it is proposed that OSL is associated with store atmosphere perception and a shopper’s cognitive response. A person who experiences a high amount of arousal to fulfill would explore...