CASE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF TOURISM ON CULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Chitwan-Sauraha and Pokhara-Ghandruk
by Ram Niwas Pandey, Pitambar Chettri, Ramesh Raj Kunwar and Govinda Ghimire
OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 1995
Publishedby the UNESCO Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific P.O. Box 967, PrakanongPostOffice Bangkok 10110,Thailand
Printed in Thailand
The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries.
UNESCO Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Case study on the effects of tourism on culture and the environment: Nepal; Chitwan-Sauraha and Pokhara-Ghandruk, by Ram Niwas Pandey, Pitambar Chettri, Ramesh Raj Kunwar and Govinda Ghimire. Bangkok, UNESCO, 1995. 5 1 p. (RACAP Series on Culture and Tourism in Asia 4) 1. TOURISM. 2. CULTURAL HERITAGE. QUALITY. 4. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL 5. NEPAL.
I. Title. II. Series.
The present publication in the series on Culture and Tourism in Asia is devoted to the Effects of Tourism on Culture and the Environment in Nepal. The “case studies” were undertaken as part of a project jointly formulated by Indonesia and Thailand in 1992 and based on a research design developed by experts on culture and tourism in a meeting held in Cipanas, West Java, Indonesia from 22-24 July 1992. The project comes within the purview of the “World Decade for Cultural Development” (1988 - 1997) proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations, which ushered in a new era of sustained activities in the field of culture both at national and international level. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) being assigned the role of lead agency for the Decadehas sponsoredthe project. Over the past decade Asia has witnessed tremendous social, cultural, political and technological changes. The rapid growth of tourism on large scale in some countries in the region has been a significant agent of these, not all very welcome, changes. Like in most developing countries of the world, tourism in many Asian countries is also conceived as a powerful means of attracting the coveted foreign exchange and an easy means of boosting the national economy. It brings investment, creates jobs, and promotes sales of crafts and local artifacts, etc. Accordingly the cultural heritage sites, performing arts, crafts and natural resources have all been exploited in attracting the tourists. This approach, however, reduces the cultural heritage and the environmental assets to an economic commodity minimizing or sometimecompletely ignoring their socio-cultural values. Moreover converging of a large number of tourists of different background on a historic monument or site and location of tourists facilities on the cultural heritage sites have often resulted not only in altering of the original features but also in all kind of pollution damaging or even destroying the fabric of the monuments and works of art. The zeal of collecting mementoes, particularly from the archaeological sites, has also led to vandalism of many sites. Tourism, viewed from another perspective, is also a factor of acculturation which affects attitudes, alters popular beliefs, changesmentalities i
and spreads new concepts relating to work, money, and human relationship. Sometimesit also destroys the ties that bind people to their faith, religion and aesthetics. In the wake of accumulation of restaurants, bars, discos and other entertainments come disturbing public behaviour, drunkenness, vandalism, crime, indecency, etc. The youth in many casesemulate the visitors...