Tourism Principle and Practice

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1. Introduction
1.1 Defining Tourism
If we consider about tourism, we think mostly of people visiting a place for having a leisure time, learning about different cultures, visiting relatives or friends and participating in some business activities or keeping a further study. For further considering, Tourism is a multidimensional and multifaceted activity which touches many lives and different economic activities for recreational, leisure or business purposes. It is the sum of the phenomena and relationship arising from the interaction among individuals, businesses, organizations and places, in the process of attracting, transporting, hosting and managing these tourists and other visitors (Cooper, et al. 2008). 1.2 Defining tourism destination

Tourists prepare travels with different purposes and expectations which contribute to different destinations. A tourism destination, which involves tourism products such as attractions, tourist resources and support services, is a certain place in which a tourist spends at least one overnight (UNWTO. 2007). 1.3 Ever increasing number of tourists

More and more tourists have enormous consuming power to pursue higher level of living quality. Perhaps getting tired of visiting scenic spots at home, an increasing number of them choose travelling abroad to enjoy a different experience. According to the report of UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (2012), about 116 countries reported the results of international tourist arrivals for more than 6 months in 2012. It has been evaluated that the global destinations recorded 467 million international tourists in the first half of 2012, which is 22 million more (+5%) than 455 million during the same period in 2011.

International Tourist Arrivals, monthly evolution World(million)
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Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) ©
1.4 What to do
The purpose of the report, as the introduction of tourism and destination, is to discuss the influence of tourists to the visiting destinations. In this report, according to the different types of tourism and destination, the impact on economy, culture and environment will be primarily talked about. 2. Introduction of types and stakeholder

2.1 Type of tourism
Destinations can be affected by various kinds of external factors such as the replacement of the trend and the changes of economical or political or environmental circumstances. Depending on the dissimilar resources in different circumstances such as Hawaii, which provide recreational and environmental tourism, destinations will attract different kinds of tourists. Tourism can be basically divided into seven types (UNWTO. 2007): Leisure: Tourists visiting a place to relax and entertain themselves. In this sector, tourism can also be separated into several types such as shopping tourism, sight-seeing tourism, heritage tourism, beach tourism and so on Business: People travel for participating an economic activity or event. Educational/study: People, which have a major proportion of students, participate in a tour for the purpose of studying. Visiting friends or relatives (VFR): Most of the tourists not only visit their friends or relatives but also enjoy a vacation during that time. Sport: A lot of tourists visit a destination for observing a sporting event such as the Olympics to entertain themselves and some of them will join the game. Religion: The reason which makes tourists travel is religion and the places they travel are mainly about religion. Health: Travelling for health reasons like seeking a more advanced and professional treatment. 2.2 Type of destination

Destinations do not have very clear boundaries because of different kinds of resources, but there are three destinations are considered as the most basic types (Cooper, et al. 2008): Coastal destinations: This kind of destination is summarized as the places close to the sea, which attracts...
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