Reservation in India is a form of affirmative action designed to improve the well-being of perceived backward and under-represented communities defined primarily by their 'caste' (quota-system based on 'gender' or 'religion') is a phenomenon that commenced with the coming into force of the Indian Constitution (the Constitution initially provided reservation to Christians, with the proviso that it wouldautomatically reduce gradually with the efflux of time) – however, lately preferential treatment on regional basis has either been non-statutorily introduced in the educational institutes (e.g. eligibility conditions for candidates from outside the State are 5% higher than that for the 'locals', as per local rules prescribed by certain Universities) or is being advocated in both jobs and lowly professions like auto-rickshaw-drivers). These are laws (both Constitutional and statutory) or merely local rules/ regulations/ practices (not derived from any Act passed by the Parliament or State-Legislature) wherein a certain percentage of total available vacancies in educational institutes and government jobs are set aside for people from backward communities and others. Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC) are the primary beneficiaries of the reservation policies under the Constitution—with the object of ensuring a level playing field (without defining the bench-mark that determines which particular individual player has reached the said 'level'; the Supreme Court's recent concept of 'creamy layer' requires a case-by-case determination as to who has ceased to deserve protection of these Laws). The reservation system has been a matter of contention ever since it was first introduced in the British occupied India and remains a point of conflict—nay, a form of protectionism [placing a 'handicap' upon certain communities] was introduced by the Mughals who levied 'jazia' tax against the Hindu traders. Many citizens who come from the upper classes find the reservation policy of the government biased and oppose it—because they feel that it takes away their rights to equality. Moreso, not everyone who comes from the underprivileged communities, supports the system because he/she says that it makes one feel disadvantaged. Thus the reservation system is controversial. Contents [hide] * 1 Background of caste based reservation * 2 Beneficiary Groups of the Reservation System * 2.1 Caste * 2.2 Gender * 2.3 Religion * 2.3.1 Controversy * 2.4 Status as a Domicile * 2.5 Other * 3 Government funding allowing reservations in colleges/universities * 4 Excluded from the reservation system * 4.1 Institutions kept out of the purview of reservation * 5 History of the Reservations System * 6 Advances under the Reservations System * 7 Critiques of the Reservations System * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links
Background of caste based reservation
A common form of discrimination, within humanity, in India is the practice of untouchability. Scheduled Castes (SCs) are the primary targets of this medieval practice—a practice, which is outlawed by the Constitution of India. An untouchable person is considered, "impure or a lesser human." However, during the Vedic period a person's 'Varna' (not 'caste') was defined by his/ her socio-economic duties (broadly classified into four classes or Varnas) – these duties were either voluntarily performed or were assigned by the local administrator etc., and 'varna' was not defined by one's birth into any particular family. STs are generally those who have been living in tribal areas located far away from modern civilization—such that the fruits of modern education and development have not reached them in, at least, an equal measure. While the definition of SCs and STs are primarily based on the history of oppression of the community or their...
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