THE TOURISM NETWORK AND SUPPLY COMPONENTS
The travel industry is a tourism network which includes both the public and private sectors. Gee, Choy and Makens define the travel industry as ”the composite of organizations, both private and public, that are involved in the development, production and marketing of products-and services to serve the- needs of the travelers” This definition clearly identifies both the direct and indirect components of the travel industry. Businesses and corporations are regarded as components of the travel industry classified as direct providers, support services and developmental organizations.
The first category, direct providers, includes businesses that are associated with travel, such as airlines, hotels, restaurants, ground transportation, travel agencies and retail shops. These businesses provide services, activities and products that are consumed and, or purchased directly by travelers. They represent the sectors of the industry that are visible to the travelers.
The second category, support services, lends support to direct providers. It includes specialized services such as tour organizers, travel and trade publications, hotel management firms, and travel research firms. - It also includes basic supplies and services such as contract laundry and contract food services. -Support services provide goods and services for both the traveler and for organizations that sell goods and services directly but not exclusively to tourists. - A good example are tour wholesalers who prepare tours and instead of selling them directly to the public sell the tours through a travel agency. -Thus the traveler receives the service indirectly through these support services.
The third category, developmental organization, is different from the first two, since it includes planners, government agencies, financial institutions, real estate developers and educational and vocational training institutions. -These organizations deal with tourism development which tends to be more complex and broader in scope than the production of daily travel services. The decisions and results of tourism development are more long-term in nature than the first two categories which deal more with operations.
Tourism Supply Components
Tourism supply components are classified into five main categories: 1. Natural resources — includes elements in an area for the use and enjoyment of visitors such as climate, landforms, terrain, flora, fauna, bodies of water, beaches, natural beauty and water supply for drinking, sanitation, and similar uses. 2. Infrastructure — consists of all underground and surface developmental construction such as water supply systems, sewage disposal systems, gas lines, electrical and communications systems, drainage systems and other constructed facilities such as highways, airports, railroads, roads, drives, parking lots, parks, night lighting, marinas and dock facilities, bus and train station facilities and similar tourist service installations. 3. Superstructure- The above ground facility services such as airport buildings, passenger traffic terminals, hotels, motels, resorts, restaurants, shopping centers, places of entertainment, museums, stores and similar structures. 4. Transportation and transportation equipment- includes items such as ships, airplanes, trains, buses, limousines, taxis, automobiles, cog railways, aerial tramway, and similar passenger transportation facilities. 5. Hospitality resources — include the cultural wealth of an area which makes possible the successful hosting of tourists. Examples are the welcoming spirit of tourist business employees, attitudes of the residents towards visitors, courtesy, friendliness, sincere interest, willingness to serve and to get better acquainted with visitors, and other manifestations of warmth and friendliness. It also includes the cultural resources of an area such as fine arts, literature, history music, dramatic...
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