FUNDAMENTALS OF TOURISM
TOURISM IS AS OLD AS CIVILIZATION
Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and the surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors. Civilization on the other hand is an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached. The roots of tourism can be traced back to the origins of civilization when man moved from his permanent residence in search of leisure, wealth, food and to trade. It has evolved from an activity of the privileged class to a phenomenon as technology expanded opportunity and space for travel. CLASSICAL TIMES
The beginning of tourism shared many of the characteristics of the business tourism as we know today. Most of the amenities and facilities demanded by the modern tourism were provided in a more basic form from the earliest days of the travel that is accommodation, catering services, souvenir shops. The first form of leisure tourism can be traced from the time of Babylonians for example during the 16th century B.C, the museum of historic antiquities was opened to the public in Babylon while in Egypt hosted religious festivals for the devoted and also others who stayed at the Empire to explore the famous buildings and work of art in the cities like pyramids to offer services to these visitors. Various services spread out for example vendors of food, drinks and guides. It is noted that a record of these visitors left marks of their visit in Egypt by vandalizing building with graffiti and so far Egyptians, grafitting dating back 2000 BC had been found. During the 3rd century BC, Greek visitors travelled to visit the sites of healing gods and at this time the independent city states, they encountered as Greece had no central authority of construction of roads. Therefore , most of them travelled by water. The Greeks enjoyed the religious festivals which were increasing, the pleasure activities were limited. Romans and Greek merchants are known to have been travelling for business and trade with other people. There was limited private travel which could be linked with holiday making and VFR. Religion provided the framework within which free time was spent, at this time it meant the break for work rather than movement from place to place. The limited travel took place in the following forms: a) Adventurous : seeking fame and fortune
b) Merchants: seeking new trade opportunities and most of these were identified with business travellers.
TRAVEL PATTERNS BEFORE THE RAILWAY
Before the railway, travel passengers travelled by road as they were maintained by the local authorities and growth of trade, there was an increasing burden on the road system as it lacked proper planning. There was demand for better roads. Until the 18th century, the most form of transport was the horse and on horseback for individual travel to be performed. The 18th century saw the emergence and increase of the coach service which was seasonal and offered slow speed rarely in excess of 3 to 4 miles per hour because of the state of the road. The first attempt to offer a relative fast service dates back to 1669 when Oxford was connected to London by a one day coach service in the summer and a two day coach service in winter. By the early 19th century, London was connected to other major cities by as many as 20 to 30 services a day. Increased business activities led to great demand of travel coach services otherwise the number of business traveller as well as increasing with the introduction of mail coach services by John Palma at his own expense introduced faster service between Bristol and London.
AGE OF STEAM
Two technologies in the early 19th century had a deep effect on transport and on growth of travel in general. These were a) The...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document