The following report provides an accurate and informative overview of the nature of tourism, its history and growth, the structure of the New Zealand industry and the impact of tourism from a New Zealand perspective. The report will draw a conclusion which Highlights area of consideration in tourism planning.
Conclusion and Recommendations
For New Zealand tourism has a lot to offer but at the same time, care has to be taken not to mistreat it. The social and cultural impacts of tourism on New Zealand so far have been on the whole beneficial but as tourism continues to grow this could change. Non-economic benefits of tourism are maximized when visitors and hosts share mutual interests and when trade is relatively small. However these factors limit potential tourist markets and income. One solution to this problem could be promotion of New Zealand as a high quality destination at a higher price, i.e. less tourists spending more money.
New Zealand tourism is largely reliant on ‘Eco-tourism’ so to maintain the tourism industry it is imperative that our environment is conserved. However tourism itself can have negative effects on the environment. The tourism sector must act responsibly in its use of the environment and any use must be sustainable.
It is the economic effects of tourism which bring the most benefit to the host nation. Tourism is a low import user which means more of the money earned here stays here. The government is earning money through tourist taxes such as the airport tax, increased export earnings and income tax revenue from people employed by the industry. A balance must be struck between these benefits and associated negative impacts on the community and the environment.
If New Zealand is to see more growth in tourism we must try and make the country more attractive to visit. More flights, low visa requirements, favorable exchange rates are all facilitators that will make New Zealand more appealing. With a high level of promotions overseas that will motivate tourists to think of our country as a destination which will be able to satisfy their needs.
The Nature of Tourism
There is not really a universally accepted definition of tourism. In 1994 the World Tourism Organization (WTO) revised its definition. It says the tourism comprises of ‘the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes’ and that it includes both tourists (overnight visitors) and excursionists (same-day visitors). Whether or not excursionists or business travelers are engaging in tourism is still a mater of debate. Tourism is generally referred to as an industry. However it does not produce something physical like other industries.
The tourism product ‘includes everything that the tourist purchases, sees, experiences and feels’ from leaving to returning home. The main sectors involved are accommodation, transport, attractions, activities and sales. Often these sectors do not recognize their part in the tourism industry and this hinders the supply of a superior tourism product.
Statistical measurement in tourism is very important. In the 1950’s and 60’s the potential economic benefits from tourism were recognized. There became a need to forecast and plan for the industry’s future. There are two main classes of information, primary data (data collected with the aim of solving a problem) and secondary data, which is obtained from an external source such as the New Zealand Tourism Board (NZTB), or from a census. The most common method of primary data collection is through a survey. Surveys ask questions to the target population. Data obtained from a survey is usually quantitative in nature but to a limited extent can also be qualitative, the how and why of travel.