The assignment due on 8 July 2011
Prepared by: Khin Su Han
3 . Introduction
3. Assessment criteria (1.1, 1.2 & 1.3)
8. Assessment criteria (2.1, 2.2 & 2.3)
13. Assessment criteria (3.1, 3.2 & 3.3)
17. Assessment criteria (4.1, 1.2 & 4.3)
Any form of economic development requires to careful planning. It is not different in tourism development planning. It is a multi-sectors activity and requires carefully cooperation and coordination of public and private sectors together with the engagement of the local community.
Tourism Development Planning
Tourism provides a major economic development opportunity for many countries and a means of improving the livelihoods of its residents. Both the public and private sectors involved in tourism depend on planning to achieve tourism development that respects the local community, creates appropriate employment, maintains natural environment, and delivers a quality visitor experience. Tourism development planning includes many different forms such as economic development planning, land use planning and infrastructure planning etc. It involves different stakeholders such as governments, private investors, developers and local communities. The aim of any development is to provide benefits for at least some of the stakeholders.
Benefits of Macau Tourism Development
In 1999, Macau was established as a Special Administrative Region of China, with its sovereignty officially returned to the Chinese Central Government from the Portuguese Government. Macau SAR Government ended the monopoly system gaming operation and opened the gaming licenses to six gaming operators including foreign organisations to extend gaming related tourism in Macau. After restructuring of Macau gaming industry, Macau can yield positive results, as the existence of competition in the industry generally benefits the customers, provides more choices and offers wider access to better service. Another benefit of gaming and tourism development is the economic growth. Tax revenue and funding also increase with the increase in number of gaming and gambling related establishments, e.g., Casinos, Hotel and Resorts, owned by different organisations. As the percentage of the revenues they pay the government is increased, there are others benefits for local community, for example, improvements and developments of infrastructures (e.g., Pac On Ferry Terminal, Hong Kong- Zhuhai- Macau Bridge project), public services, and generate direct and indirect job opportunities for the Macau citizens. The gaming activities in Macau go hand-in hand with its tourism industry. It cannot deny Casinos are the main attractions of Macau tourism. Macau World Heritages are also promoted through gaming attraction. For long term sustainability, all stakeholders intend Macau to develop as Leisure tourism and Heritage destinations. Recent development of Macau gaming industry is the benefit for Macau tourism industry. This is also an opportunity to enhance Business Tourism in Macau and promote MICE events in Macau Hotels and Resorts.
The need for planning in tourism development
Proactive and reactive approaches
There are a variety of approaches that may be adopted when planning for the development of any industry or any economy. * Proactive approach requires deep and thorough understanding of not only the local economy and its structure, limitations and strengths, but also the probable effects of external factors, how they may impinge on the local development process and what form these external effects are likely to take. * Reactive approach is based on the premise that there are too many variables, internally and externally, to be able to plan. These variables cannot be controlled nor can they be predicted with sufficient levels of accuracy. Therefore, it is better to develop reactive schemes so...