The subject of this report is the application of Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle for Scotland and also a critique of VisitScotland’s tourism destination development. The first section of the report presents the aim and objectives and the utilised methods of research. In the second chapter called “Tourism destination or destination tourism” are presented some preliminary theories regarding tourism destination as a market place. The third section presents the evolution of travel and tourism, international tourism, and also tourism destinations. The fourth chapter consists of three subsections. The first one presents the theoretical background behind the main destination development models and their partial applications to Scotland. The second subsection presents the unique early stages of the Scottish tourism through Butler’s TALC model. The last subsection of the chapter objectively illustrates Scotland’s present and recent past development through the cycle and its potential entries to the new and final stage. The fifth and final chapter is focused on Scotland’s international market. The first subchapter demonstrates the rich Scottish heritage in North America. In the second subsection the US society and its generations are analysed to select the best US market for Scotland. The third subsection presents VisitScotland’s campaign for the American visitors called Homecoming Scotland, the results of the 2009 campaign and expectations from the 2014 one.
Table of contents
Executive summary 1
Table of contents 2
List of figures 4
1.2Aims and objectives 5
2.0Tourism destination or destination tourism? 6
3.0History of International travel and tourism: From ancient festivals to outer space 6 4.0The Tourism area life cycle (TALC): Theory and application for Scotland 9
4.1TALC models and the concept of Tourist Area Cycle Evolution: Their application to Scotland 9
4.2Scotland’s unique early cycle stages 11
4.3Scotland’s tourism development and consolidation 14 5.0Homecoming Scotland: Attracting the American market 16
5.1Scottish Ancestry in North America 16
5.2Scotland’s markets in the changing US society 17
5.3Homecoming Scotland 2009 and 2014: Stagnating nationally, developing internationally 18 Conclusion 20
List of figures
*Figure 1 copied from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Culloden_Viaduct01_2007-08-22.jpg Representing a panoramic view of Cullodin Viaduct 10
*Fig. 2: Adapted from Butler's “The Tourism Area Life Cycle Vol. 1: Applications and modifications”, about Tourism Area Life Cycle 14
*Fig. 3 International visitors in Scotland from International Caption Survey 17
* Fig. 4: Adapted from clanstirling.org website about American Scottish 18
Each tourism destination area travels a life cycle. These cycles are adapted according to the destination type, but they are still subject to interpretation. Scotland has proved to be an important competitor in the tourism industry nationally and even internationally. The uniqueness in which Scotland travelled the first stages of the cycle and the numerous differences of cycle phase between regions and also markets makes it the one of the world’s most challenging destination area to develop.
1.2Aims and objectives
The aim of this report is to demonstrate using strong and logical arguments Scotland’s current place in the TALC cycle and also to analyse VisitScotland’s newest international and...