Tourism and Tourist Attractions

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1.0Background of the Study
The success of tourism in any country depends on the ability of that country to sufficiently develop, manage and market the tourism facilities and activities in that country. Many developing countries depend mainly on tourism for economic growth and diversity. In Nigeria, oil is the largest foreign exchange earners. But uncertainties in prices of oil products in the international market make tourism alternative and reliable source of investments and exchange. The Federal Government of Nigeria in its determined efforts to develop and promote tourism into an economically viable industry had in 1991 evolved a tourism policy. The main thrust of the policy is to make Nigeria a prominent tourism destination in Africa, generate foreign exchange, encourage even development, promote tourism-based rural enterprises, generate employment, accelerate rural-urban integration and foster socio-cultural unity among the various regions of the country through the promotion of domestic and international tourism. It also aims at encouraging active private sector participation in tourism development. Tourist sites are places of significant past events. They are areas or places containing properties and monuments commemorating diverse socio-cultural events. Such sites provide insight into how past generations lived, worked and worshiped. Some of these sites are confronted with a number of problems which include abandonment, neglect, lack of maintenance and inadequate accessibility. Accessibility is the ease with which an activity or a service can be reached or used (Social Exclusion Unit, 2003). It follows then that, in terms of tourist sites, accessibility is the ease with which they can be reached. Adequate accessibility to different sites will generate interaction among various locations. However, due to the difficulties of easy access to basic social facilities like tourist sites, it is necessary to investigate the operative and motivational factors that encourage movements to certain destinations. In both towns and cities, the problem of inadequate accessibility becomes particularly serious especially in the Nigerian context where residents do not have the ability to reach places or things that are important to them. As a human activity, tourism deals with the movement of people in search of holiday or business. It is a driver of economy at the local, national and international levels. It is a rapidly growing phenomenon and has become one of the largest industries in the world (Shah and Gupta, 2000). The impact of tourism is extremely varied. On one hand, it plays an important and certainly positive role in the socio-economic and political development in destination countries by, for instance, offering new employment opportunities. Also, in certain instances, it may contribute to a broader cultural understanding by creating awareness, respecting the diversity of cultures and ways of life (UNCSD {United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development}, 1999). In another perspective, tourism contributes, to a greater degree than most activities, in the provision of a wide range of infrastructure services - airports, air navigation, roads, railheads and ports, as well as basic infrastructure services required by hotels, restaurants, shops, and recreation facilities (e.g. telecommunications and utilities). As such, it can be said that tourism is able to contribute to development which is economically, ecologically and socially sustainable, because it has less impact on natural resources and the environment than most other industries; it is based on enjoyment and appreciation of local culture, built heritage, and natural environment, as such that the industry has a direct and powerful motivation to protect these assets; it can play a positive part in increasing consumer commitment to sustainable development principles through its unparalleled consumer distribution channels; and it provides an economic incentive to...
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