1) What are the factors that influence the demand for tourism?
ATTITUDES: individual perception of the world
PERCEPTIONS: mental impressions of everything an individual encounters
TRAVEL MOTIVATORS: why people want to travel and what are the inner urges to initiate travel
IMAGES: sets of beliefs, ideas and impressions related to products and destination
2) Why do we need to study consumer behavior of tourist?
* The needs, purchase motivators and decision process associated with the consumption of tourism * The impact of different effects of various promotional tactics * The possible perception of risk
* The different market segments based upon purchase behavior * How managers can improve their chance of marketing success
3) What are the motivational theories applied to tourist’s consumer behavior?
Maslow 1970: He identified 2 motivational types:
Deficiency or tension – reducing motives
Inductive or arousal – seeking motives
Lower 1. Psychological (hunger, thirst, rest, activity)
2. Safety (security, freedom from fear)
3. Belonging and love (affection, love)
4. Esteem (Self esteem)
5. Self Actualization (personal self-fulfillment)
Dann 1981: He proposed that there are seven elements within the overall approach to motivations * Travel is response to what is lacking yet desired: Tourists are motivated by the desire of experience things * Destination Pull in response to motivational push
* Motivation as a fantasy
* Motivation as classified purpose: visiting friends, family ecc. * Motivation typologies: A: SUNLUST (amenities that you cannot find at home) WANDERLUST (experience something new) B: typologies that focus on dimension role of the tourist * Motivation and tourist esperiences: debate regarding the authencity of tourist experiences and depends upon beliefs about the types of tourist experiences * Motivation as auto definition: the way tourist define their situation is better than the observation of tourist behavior
McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie 1995
* Physical motivators
* Cultural Motivators
* Interpersonal motivators
* Status and prestige motivators
Plog 1971: he developed a theory where the US population was classified into psychographic types
* Psycocentric: derives from the word psyche where an individual centers thoughts or concerns on the small problem areas of life. They tend to be safe in their choice of travel and take many return trips. “Repeaters” * Allocentric: they are more adventurous and motivated to travel/discover new destinations. “Wanderers”
4) What are the different levels of image according to “Guns’ image theory”?
Gunn 1972 identifies two levels of image
* Organic: images which are not related to advertising or promoting * Induced: all the images that are given by advertising and promotion.
5) Discuss the model of consumer behavior! (Compare the model)
Mathienson and Wall 1982: offer a five-stage process of travel buying behavior and their framework is influenced by four interrelated factors * Tourist profile
* Travel awareness
* Destination and characteristics
* Trip features
Five stage process:
* Travel Desire
* Information Collection
* Travel Decision
* Travel preparation and experience
* Travel satisfaction outcome
Moscardo et Al 1996: they have provided a different approach to consumer behavior by stressing the importance of activities as a critical link between travel and destination choice. They argue that motives provide travelers with expectations for activities and destinations are seen as offering these activities.
6) What are the critics of the model of consumer behavior?
* They are too theoretical and not grounded in any empirical testing * They are beginning to date and no new models have been developed since the mid 1990’s yet the travel sector has changed considerably *...
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