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This touch sensitive pad on the Acer Aspire 8920 laptop can increase and reduce the volume of the speakers. A touchscreen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. The term generally refers to touching the display of the device with a finger or hand. Touchscreens can also sense other passive objects, such as a stylus. Touchscreen is common in devices such as all-in-one computers, tablet computers, and smartphones. The touchscreen has two main attributes. First, it enables one to interact directly with what is displayed, rather than indirectly with a cursor controlled by a mouse or touchpad. Secondly, it lets one do so without requiring any intermediate device that would need to be held in the hand. Such displays can be attached to computers, or to networks as terminals. They also play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such as the personal digital assistant (PDA), satellite navigation devices, mobile phones, and video games. Contents * 1 History * 2 Technologies * 2.1 Resistive * 2.2 Surface acoustic wave * 2.3 Capacitive * 2.3.1 Surface capacitance * 2.3.2 Projected capacitance * 18.104.22.168 Mutual capacitance * 22.214.171.124 Self-capacitance * 2.4 Infrared * 2.5 Optical imaging * 2.6 Dispersive signal technology * 2.7 Acoustic pulse recognition * 3 Construction * 4 Development * 5 Ergonomics and usage * 5.1 Finger stress * 5.2 Fingernail as stylus * 5.3 Fingerprints * 5.4 Combined with haptics * 5.5 Gorilla arm * 6 Screen protectors * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links
|  History
The prototype x-y mutual capacitance touchscreen (left) developed at CERN in 1977 by Bent Stumpe, a Danish electronics engineer, for the control room of CERN’s accelerator SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron). This was a further development of the self capacitance screen (right), also developed by Stumpe at CERN in 1972. In 1971, the first "Touch Sensor" was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst (founder of Elographics) while he was an instructor at the University of Kentucky. This sensor, called the "Elograph," was patented by The University of Kentucky Research Foundation. The "Elograph" was not transparent like modern touchscreens; however, it was a significant milestone in touchscreen technology. In 1974, the first true touchscreen incorporating a transparent surface was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst and Elographics. In 1977, Elographics developed and patented five-wire resistive technology, the most popular touchscreen technology in use today.  Touchscreens first gained some visibility with the invention of the computer-assisted learning terminal, which came out in 1975 as part of the PLATO project. Touchscreens have subsequently become familiar in everyday life. Companies use touchscreens for kiosk systems in retail and tourist settings, point of sale systems, ATMs, and PDAs, where a stylus is sometimes used to manipulate the GUI and to enter data. The popularity of smart phones, PDAs, portable game consoles and many types of information appliances is driving the demand for, and acceptance of, touchscreens. From 1979–1985, the Fairlight CMI (and Fairlight CMI IIx) was a high-end musical sampling and re-synthesis workstation that utilized light pen technology, with which the user could allocate and manipulate sample and synthesis data, as well as access different menus within its OS by touching the screen with the light pen. The later Fairlight series III models used a graphics tablet in place of the light pen. The HP-150 from 1983 was one of the world's earliest commercial touchscreen computers. It did not have a touchscreen in the strict sense; instead, it had a 9" Sony Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) surrounded by infrared transmitters and receivers, which detected the...
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