Total Quality Management a Literature Review

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Total Quality Management:

Its relevance in today’s marketplace











1. Total Quality Management: Standing the test of time

2. Background

This literature review has been completed as part of the MAN5010/MBA5710 unit, Management. This review encompasses opinions and findings contained within a burgeoning body of work that have been published within the last 30 years, and sets out to demonstrate the origins and subsequent development of Total Quality Management (TQM), its definition, the benefits of implementing TQM in the workplace and the associated pitfalls. It also examines the role of ISO 9000 in context to TQM and concludes by offering options for future research.

3. Objectives

4. Brief Description of Research

5. Key Findings

6. Summary of Research

1. Origins of Total Quality Management

Literature suggests that there are 5 separate authors credited with the origins of what we know today as Total Quality Management. They are William E. Deming, Joseph M. Juran, Kaoru Ishikawa, Phillip B. Crosby and Armand V. Feigenbaum. (Krüger, 2001; Tari, 2005).

Deming’s management philosophy contains guidelines in the format of 14 separate points that act as a blueprint to achieve quality management by adopting fitting organisational behaviours. (Rungtusanatham, 1994) Juran is credited with devising the Pareto principle, commonly referred to as the 80-20 rule. The Pareto principle contends that 80% of effects are determined from 20% of causes. (Bunkley, 2008). Ishikawa’s prescribed methodology is of quality control employed company wide. He urges use of the quality circle and goes onto list his ‘seven tools of quality control’. (Beckford, 1998, p. 100). Feigenbaum states that enhancing quality will spark improvements in every other aspect of the organisation; therefore, quality becomes a new method of management. (Powell, 2001).Crosby underscored the importance of the employee as a resource within the organisation. An employee, through being continuously engaged is in an ideal position to make an active contribution to continuous improvement. (Roberts, 1993)

2. The development of Total Quality Management

At the conclusion of World War II American business enjoyed a dominant position within the global market. Industry within the U.S.A. was at its pinnacle while other nations were beginning the long and arduous journey to economic and industrial recovery. During this period American companies shifted their focus from yield and quality to other factors such as finance, marketing and restructuring the organisation. (Petersen, 1999) Demand for consumer products had intensified. This was attributed to the scant availability of such items during the years of the war. Order books were full, and quality was of little importance while there were orders to fill. (Rayworth, 1993). It was at this time during the American occupation that Deming arrived in Japan. During this time he became acquainted with members of the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers. In 1950 Deming was invited to speak at the Industry club by the president of the Federation of Economic Organisations, Ichiro Ishikawa. (Leitner, 1999). As a result of his speech Deming was invited to present a series of lectures advocating his management theories. During the first such lecture Deming told his audience that if they followed his ideas they would be able to compete with other nations within 5 years. What appeared to be a simple message was music to the ears of forlorn and vanquished Japanese. One industry leader who had attended the lecture heeded...
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