Total Quality Management

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* 1 Definition
* 2 Origins
* 3 TQM in manufacturing
* 4 TQM and contingency-based research
* 5 TQM, just another Management fad?
* 6 References
* 7 See also
* 8 External links

TQM is composed of three paradigms:

* Total: Organization wide
* Quality: With its usual Definitions, with all its complexities (External Definition) * Management: The system of managing with steps like Plan, Organize, Control, Lead, Staff, etc.

As defined by the International Organization for Standards (ISO):

"TQM is a management approach for an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society."

In Japan, TQM comprises four process steps, namely:

1. Kaizen – Focuses on Continuous Process Improvement, to make processes visible, repeatable and measurable. 2. Atarimae Hinshitsu – The idea that things will work as they are supposed to (e.g. a pen will write.). 3. Kansei – Examining the way the user applies the product leads to improvement in the product itself. 4. Miryokuteki Hinshitsu – The idea that things should have an aesthetic quality which is different from "atarimae hinshitsu" (e.g. a pen will write in a way that is pleasing to the writer.)

TQM requires that the company maintain this quality standard in all aspects of its business. This requires ensuring that things are done right the first time and that defects and waste are eliminated from operations.

[edit] Origins

"Total Quality Control" was the key concept of Armand Feigenbaum's 1951 book, Quality Control: Principles, Practice, and Administration, a book that was subsequently released in 1961 under the title, Total Quality Control (ISBN 0-07-020353-9). Joseph Juran, Philip B. Crosby, and Kaoru Ishikawa also contributed to the body of knowledge now known as TQM.

The American Society for Quality says that the term Total Quality Management was first used by the U.S. Naval Air Systems Command "to describe its Japanese-style management approach to quality improvement."[1] This is consistent with the story that the United States Navy Personnel Research and Development Center began researching the use of statistical process control (SPC); the work of Juran, Crosby, and Ishikawa; and the philosophy of W. Edwards Deming to make performance improvements in 1984. This approach was first tested at the North Island Naval Aviation Depot.

In his paper, "The Making of TQM: History and Margins of the Hi(gh)-Story" from 1994, Xu claims that "Total Quality Control" is translated incorrectly from Japanese since there is no difference between the words "control" and "management" in Japanese. William Golimski refers to Koji Kobayashi, former CEO of NEC, being the first to use TQM, which he did during a speech when he got the Deming Prize in 1974.

[edit] TQM in manufacturing

Quality assurance through statistical methods is a key component in a manufacturing organisation, where TQM generally starts by sampling a random selection of the product. The sample can then be tested for things that matter most to the end users. The causes of any failures are isolated, secondary measures of the production process are designed, and then the causes of the failure are corrected. The statistical distributions of important measurements are tracked. When parts' measures drift into a defined "error band", the process is fixed. The error band is usually a tighter distribution than the "failure band", so that the production process is fixed before failing parts can be produced.

It is important to record not just the measurement ranges, but what failures caused them to be chosen. In that way, cheaper fixes can be substituted later (say, when the product is redesigned) with no loss of quality. After TQM has been in use, it's very common for parts to be...
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