Emil Adrian V. Fernandez
M.S. Industrial Engineering Student
Industrial Engineering Department, De La Salle University – Manila email@example.com
Among current environmental issues, pollution is of major importance in terms of the impact on people’s health and their living and working conditions regardless of the origin or source of pollutants. The indiscriminate discharge of untreated wastewater, improper disposal of solid waste and air pollution pose great risks to public health and cause significant welfare losses. The Philippine Pulp and Paper Industry though played a major role in the economic recovery program is one of the major contributors of these wastes. Inefficiencies in the production processes, lack of research and management skill and commitment to environmental protection are just one of the causes of these wastes. End of the Pipe Approach of the industry to comply with the government policies imposes cost to increase that degrades their capital to invest in a cleaner technology that worsened the impact on the environment. The objective of this paper is to assess current environmental management and control practices of pulp and paper industry from micro to macro perspective using cleaner production, life cycle analysis and material flow accounting as a platform of the analysis. The paper also aims to provide creative conclusions to minimize the environmental impact of pulp and paper industry in the Philippines. KEYWORDS: Life Cycle Analysis, Cleaner Production, Material Flow Accounting, Pulp and Paper, End of the Pipe (EOP) Approach
1.1 Philippine Pulp and Paper Industry Profile
In the Philippines There are a total of 37 pulp and paper mills operating. Only one of these mills is an integrated pulp and paper mill. Of the 36 non-integrated mills, five have facilities solely for the production of pulp while the remainder manufacture a wide variety of paper and paper-based products. Seventeen pulp and paper mills registered with the Board of Investments have a total project cost of P20.3 billion (BOI, 2000). The industry as a whole has a combined capacity of 786,600 tons per year (tpy) of various grades of paper and paperboard and 16,725 tpy of abaca pulp and 190,000 tpy of deinked pulp, mechanical pulp and kraft pulp (Bantayan and Razal, 2001). According to Aragon (1995), the demand for paper and paperboard is greatly influenced by economic growth, increase in school population and population growth. TAPPIP (undated) reports that the annual per capita consumption of paper is 13 kilograms which is way below the average of the world’s consumption of 43 kgs. The heaviest consumers and producers of paper are concentrated in Manila and other highly urbanized areas. The pulp and paper industry in the Philippines has played a vital role in the economic development of the country. The subsector’s end user segments include printing, publishing, converting and packaging. The enormity of its service and the rapidly growing consumption of the products of the industry indicate the need to ensure stability of future supply in a sustainable manner – economically, environmentally, and socially (Portal, Visvanathan, C. and Mohanty, 1998). The industry employs over 1.4 million workers (direct and indirect) with a total of P2.4 billion annual compensation (Pamatmat, 1999). Indirect workers include waste paper collectors, dealers and junk shop owners supplying waste paper to local mills (Bantayan and Razal, 2001). According to the Pulp and Paper sectoral guidebook prepared by the Development Bank of the Philippines, the paper and paperboard are predominately made from secondary fibers and or waste paper materials. The country imported waste paper from USA, Singapore, Germany, Hongkong, Canada, Europe and the rest of Asia (Bantayan and Razal, 2001). 1.2 Pulp and Paper Industry...