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Chapter 16 Motivating Employees



1. Motivation is a result of an interaction between a person and a situation. (True; easy; p. 452)

2. The three key elements in the definition of motivation are energy, direction, and achievement. (False; difficult; p. 452)

3. High levels of effort don’t necessarily lead to favorable job performance unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization. (True; easy; p. 452)


4. The best-known theory of motivation is probably McGregor’s Theories X and Y. (False; easy; p. 453)

5. Maslow argued that each level in the needs hierarchy must be substantially satisfied before the next is activated. (True; moderate; p. 454)

6. Lower-order needs are satisfied internally while higher-order needs are predominantly satisfied externally. (False; moderate; p. 454)

7. The two-factor theory is also called Theory X and Theory Y. (False; easy; p. 455)

8. Herzberg believed that the data from his study suggested that the opposite of satisfaction is dissatisfaction. (False; moderate; p. 455)


9. Based on McClelland’s three-needs theory, high achievers perform best when the odds are against them. (False; moderate; p. 456)

10. The best managers are high in the need for power and high in the need for affiliation. (False; difficult; p. 456)

11. Reinforcement theory is related to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. (False; moderate; p. 460)

12. The key to reinforcement theory is that it ignores factors such as goals, expectations, and needs and focuses solely on what happens to a person when he or she takes some action. (True; difficult; p. 460)

13. Job design refers to the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs. (True; easy; p. 460)

14. Adding vertical depth to a job is called job enlargement. (False; moderate; p. 460)

15. Job enlargement increases job depth.
(False; easy; p. 461)

16. When a mail sorter’s job is expanded to include mail delivery, the mail sorter has experienced job enlargement. (True; easy; p. 461)

17. In the job characteristics model, skill variety refers to the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. (False; moderate; p. 462)

18. According to the job characteristics model, task identity is not important. (False; moderate; p. 462)

19. According to equity theory, a person who earns $50,000 will be less satisfied with his/her pay than a person who earns $100,000. (False; moderate; p. 464)

20. Equity theory has three referent categories: other, system, and self. (True; moderate; p. 465)

21. The three variables in Vroom’s expectancy theory are valence, instrumentality, and expectancy. (True; moderate; p. 466)

22. Vroom would say that if a person values an outcome, his/her effort to obtain that outcome will always be great. (False; moderate; 466)


23. Equity theory has a relatively strong following in the United States. (True; easy; p. 469)

24. Flextime is a scheduling system in which employees work four 10-hour days. (False; easy; p. 470)

25. Job sharing consists of two or more people who split a full-time job. (True; easy; p. 470)

26. Most temporary workers prefer the temporariness of their jobs. (False; easy; p. 472)

27. Performance-based compensation is probably most compatible with expectancy theory. (True; difficult; p. 475)

28. Everybody is motivated by jobs that are high in autonomy, variety, and responsibilities. (False; moderate; p. 477)

29. If participation is inconsistent with the culture, managers should consider using assigned goals. (True; moderate; p. 478)

30. Employees perform better for managers who care about them. (True; easy; p. 479)

Multiple-Choice Questions

For each of the following choose the answer that...
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