Mathematics is a kind of study in which the properties of idealized objects are scrutinized or slowly examined. Mathematics was first used as a tool for calculation for a certain computation and other tabulation and eventually it was improved and has already has its own terms, approaches and rules to be use for its application.
The term “mathematics” is often shortened to “math” in informal American speech and “maths” in British English. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, The term “math” has” been in usage in London and the United Sates since 1890.
During our ancient civilization mathematics had already existed but mathematics was only in the domain of specially trained priest and scribes, government officials who were in charge for tax collection, measurement, building, trade, calendar making, and ritual practices.
It is obvious that mathematical concepts are very useful since before but then many mathematicians were curious about this that’s why they extend all these ideas far beyond limits of practical necessity as cited by Victor J. Katz (History of Mathematics, 3rd. p.2). The following are some principle of mathematics that was supported by different researchers.
The first principle in teaching mathematics is the principle of cooperation in an environment conducive in doing mathematics. This principle states that an effective teaching and learning cannot take place if the classroom is not conducive and poorly manage by teachers. Teachers have to do multi-tasking in order to comply or to make the students feel comfortable inside the classroom and also the teacher must give an excellent management inside the classroom to be able for the students to achieve their objectives. But according to Brenda Corpuz and Salandanan (Principle of Teaching I 2nd edition; 2011). That a well manage classroom does not just came out from nowhere and it takes a good deal effort to create that conducive classroom atmosphere. In leading students to develop strategies for gaining and maintaining the students’ cooperation, teacher must plan his or her lessons ahead, as cited by James S. Cangelosi (Teaching Mathematics in Secondary and Middle School 3rd edition; 2003).
In teaching mathematics a well-planned lesson and an excellent teaching strategy will work because if the teachers teaching strategies are satisfying he or she could make students to cooperate and also a teacher must use or apply research base principles for managing the classroom and to interact with the students. Improper management of students is leading cause of teacher failure, according to Bridges (1985, p.5).
The second principle in teaching mathematics is the equity in the classroom to learn mathematics. Every student should have equitable and optimal opportunities to learn mathematics free from bias-international- based on race, gender, socioeconomic status or language, (National Council of Teachers of mathematics or NCTM). According to Art Johnson, Teaching Mathematics to Culturally and Mathematics Linguistically Diverse Learners; 2010 that all students need the opportunity to learn challenging mathematics from a well trained and qualified teacher that could connect to the students background and culture4s in order for the students to eliminate the gaps in learning mathematics.
Principles And Standards for School Mathematics (2000), the (NCTM) list equity as the first six over arching principles for school mathematics. Equity is one of the most needed factor to achieve excellence in learning mathematics. In addition a key aspect to the Equity Principle is that “All students should have access to an excellent and equitable mathematics program that provides solid support for their learning and is responsive to their prior knowledge or schema, intellectual strengths and personal interest,(NCTM,2000). Achieving excellence in mathematics education needs...