INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZING
1. Organizing is a pattern of relationship whereby managers and employees attempt to achieve the same goals. These goals are the result of the decision-making process performed by managers at the early stages of planning. 2. The five basic function of management in an organization are planning, organizing, leading, controlling, and staffing. Therefore, after each plan is made, managers must arrange or organize all the planned activities in order to successfully achieve the set goals. 3. An organization needs to perform a complete and comprehensive organization process which is suitable with the objectives, goals, strategies, and programmes planned at the planning stage. DEFINITION OF ORGANIZING
1. Organizing is an efficient way of managing organizational resources in order to achieve the planned goals and objectives. 2. Organizing is needed to achieve the organization’s desired goals. Organizing refers to the coordination of human resources and organizational resources whereby jobs, physical resources, or financial resources are allocated within the organization. 3. There are several definition of organizing given by management book authors, as follows: a) According to Robbins and Coulter (1996), organizing is a process of forming an organizational structure. b) According to Stoner and Wankel (1986), organizing is a process whereby work activities are arranged and allocated to employees in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. c) According to Jaafar Muhammad (1992), organizing is the effective arrangement of organizational resources to be in unity in order to achieve the organization’s planned goals and objectives. d) According to Gatewood, Taylor, and Farell, organizing refers to the activities involved in designing a suitable organizational structure, allocating tasks or jobs to employees and their jobs or tasks. e) According to Certo (1997), organizing is to determine each activity which is performed by the human resources of an organization and how these resources are best coordinated to achieve organizational goals. 4. From the definitions given above, it can be concluded that organizing emphasizes the process of dividing jobs that are in line with organizational goals and directions. Organizations must practice a structured system to describe how employees should perform and coordinate their tasks and responsibilities.
IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZING
The importance of organizing is as follows:
1. It shows the job division or specialization whereby a unit or department bears a specific job burden and responsibilities in an organization. 2. It shows the duties and responsibilities of each department in an organization. 3. It shows the reporting relationship between managers and surbodinates. 4. It shows the type of jobs performed in an organization. 5. It shows the grouping of work segment in an organization. 6. It shows the department or units at each management level in the organizational hierarchy.
4.4 THE ORGANIZING PROCESS
1. Different management book authors have categorized the organizing process into various steps. 2. According to Earnest Dale, the organizing process comprises several steps that must be performed repeatedly to ensure success of the process. Figure 3.1 shows the steps involved in the process of organizing.
Listing the jobs
Dividing the jobs
Establishing the departments
Coordinating the jobs
Performing evaluating and adjustments
Figure 3.1 The Organizing Process
(a) Listing the jobs
( i ) Every organizing has its own goals and objectives and must be achieved through different ways.
(ii) Therefore, jobs performed by the employees must be identified. Managers have to determine the resources that will be used by the employees. (iii) Managers need to list the details of each job or activity that is to be performed by the...