Toothpaste Modern Toothpaste

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Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste use can promote good oral hygiene: it can aid in the removal of dental plaque and food from the teeth, it can aid in the elimination and/or masking of halitosis, and it can deliver active ingredients such as fluoride or xylitol to prevent tooth and gum disease (gingivitis). In most or all developed countries, usage after each meal is encouraged. Most toothpaste contains chemicals which are toxic when ingested, and is not intended to be swallowed. Contents

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* 1 History
o 1.1 Early toothpastes
o 1.2 The modern toothbrush
o 1.3 Tooth powder
o 1.4 Modern toothpaste
* 2 Ingredients and flavors
o 2.1 Active ingredients
o 2.2 Other ingredients
o 2.3 Toxicity
* 3 Striped toothpaste
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links

[edit] History

Evidence of oral hygiene practices first appears in the archaeological record around 5000 years ago in Egypt, China, Mongolia and India.[citation needed]

[edit] Early toothpastes

The earliest known reference to a toothpaste is in a manuscript from Egypt in the 4th century AD, which prescribes a mixture of powdered salt, pepper, mint leaves, and iris flowers. The Romans used toothpaste formulations based on human urine.[1] In the 9th century, the Persian musician and fashion designer Ziryab is known to have invented a type of toothpaste, which he popularized throughout Islamic Spain.[2] The exact ingredients of this toothpaste are not currently known,[3] but it was reported to have been both "functional and pleasant to taste".[2] It is not known whether these early toothpastes were used alone, were to be rubbed onto the teeth with rags, or were to be used with early toothbrushes such as neem tree twigs or miswak. It is known that these twigs were used by Indians from ancient times. Neem tree twigs are said to have good medicinal effects.

[edit] The modern toothbrush

The modern toothbrush was invented in China in the late 1400s, but was not widely used in the West until the 1800s. Until the late 1800s, the toothbrush was usually used only with water.

[edit] Tooth powder

Tooth powders for use with toothbrushes came into general use in the 19th century in Britain. Most were homemade, with chalk, pulverized brick, or salt as ingredients. An 1866 Home Encyclopedia recommended pulverized charcoal, and cautioned that many patented tooth powders that were commercially marketed did more harm than good.[citation needed]

[edit] Modern toothpaste
Modern toothpaste gel
Modern toothpaste gel

An 18th century American and British toothpaste recipe containing burnt bread has been found. Another formula around this time called for dragon's blood (a resin), cinnamon, and burnt alum.[4]

By 1900, a paste made of hydrogen peroxide and baking soda was recommended for use with toothbrushes. Pre-mixed toothpastes were first marketed in the 19th century, but did not surpass the popularity of tooth-powder until World War I. In 1892, Dr. Washington Sheffield of New London, Connecticut, manufactured toothpaste into a collapsible tube. Sheffield's toothpaste was called Dr. Sheffield's Creme Dentifrice. He had the idea after his son traveled to Paris and saw painters using paint from tubes. In New York City in 1896, Colgate & Company Dental Cream was packaged in collapsible tubes imitating Sheffield.

Fluoride was first added to toothpastes in 1914, and was criticized by the American Dental Association (ADA) in 1937. Fluoride toothpastes developed in the 1950s received the ADA's approval. To develop the first ADA-approved fluoride toothpaste, Procter & Gamble started a research program in the early 1940s. In 1950, Procter & Gamble developed a joint research project team headed by Dr. Joseph Muhler at Indiana University to study new toothpaste with fluoride. In...
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