The asserted in the quote often means the related knowledge. Hitchens with this quote wants to say that that which is asserted by anyone in any study field must be supported by legit evidence otherwise it will be dismissed without the need to prove the asserted wrong. But what really is evidence? There are different types of evidence, depending what areas of knowledge you would look at. For the sake of this essay, the 2 areas of knowledge i will be using are natural sciences and human science. In natural science, evidence is derived from using the scientific method. Scientific method focus on hypothesis, result gathering and explanation. While in Human sciences, scientific method cant be always applied, as it deals with more of qualitative results. Human sciences deals with human interaction, and as humans rarely perform in the same manner under same conditions, results will be different and scientific method cannot be used.
Natural sciences often use reason as the main way of knowing. For any theory invented there is always appropriate reasoning and facts which back up the theory. This is so, because if the theory does not contain strong evidence, it will be dismissed. For example, the idea that water boils at 100 Celsius has been accepted, because it has been proven on multiple occasion and if you test it, you will get the same result as thousands before. However, there are some theories which are not fully supported but yet have not been dismissed. For example, the theory about whales getting stranded in shallow waters. There are a few which attempt to explain this, but none have actually been able to prove it. One theory is that whales echo sounds interfere with the ones of the human (technology). Another theory is that whales are very sociale and when 1 whale is sick, the rest of the group will still together and follow it in the shallow water to recover where they get stranded.
In human sciences it is different. There are many theorems and clichés which...
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