Question 1- 7 Hotels were among the earliest facilities that bound the United States together. They were both creatures and creators of communities, as well symptoms of the frenetic quest for community. Even in the first part of the nineteenth century, Americans were already forming the habit of gathering from all corners of the nation for both public and private, business and pleasure, purposes. Conventions were the new occasions, and hotels were distinctively American facilities making conventions possible. The first national convention of a major party to choose a candidate for President (that of the National Republican party, which met on December 12, 1831, and nominated Henry Clay for President) was held in Baltimore, at a hotel that was then reputed to be the best in the country. The presence in Baltimore of Barnum's City Hotel, a six-story building with two hundred apartments, helps explain why many other early national political conventions were held there. In the longer run, American hotels made other national conventions not only possible but pleasant and convivial. The growing custom of regularly assembling from afar the representatives of all kinds of groups – not only for political conventions, but also for commercial, professional, learned, and avocations ones – in turn supported the multiplying hotels. By the mid-twentieth century, conventions accounted for over a third of the yearly room occupancy of all hotels in the nation; about eighteen thousand different conventions were held annually with a total attendance of about ten million persons. Nineteenth-century American hotelkeepers, who were no Ionger the genial, deferential "hosts" of the eighteenth-century European inn, became leading citizens. Holding a large stake in the community, they exercised power to make it prosper. As owners or managers of the local "palace of the public,” they were makers and shapers of a principal community attraction. Travelers from abroad were mildly shocked by this high social position.
The word "bound" in line 1 is closest in meaning to (A) led (B) protected (C) tied (D) strengthened
The National Republican party is mentioned in line 8 as an example of a group (A) (B) (C) (D) from Baltimore of learned people owning a hotel holding a convention
The word "assembling" in line 14 is closest in meaning to (A) (B) (C) (D) announcing motivating gathering contracting
It can be inferred from the passage that early hotelkeepers in the United States were (A) (B) (C) (D) active politicians European immigrants professional builders influential citizens
The word "ones" in line 16 refers to 7. (A) (B) (C) (D) hotels conventions kinds representatives Which of the following statements about early American hotels is NOT mentioned in the passage? (A) Travelers from abroad did not enjoy staying in them. (B) Conventions were held in them. (C) People used them for both business and pleasure. (D) They were important to the community
The word "it" in line 23 refers to (A) European inn (B) host (C) community (D) public
Questions 8-17 Beads were probably the first durable ornaments humans possessed, and the intimate relationship they had with their owners is reflected in the fact that beads are among the most common items found in ancient archaeological sites. In the past, as today, men, women, and children adorned themselves with beads. In some cultures still, certain beads are often worn from birth until death, and then are buried with their owners for the afterlife. Abrasion due to daily wear alters the surface features of beads, and if they are buried for long, the effects of corrosion can further change their appearance. Thus, interest is imparted to the bead both by use and the effects of time. Besides their wearability, either as jewelry or incorporated into articles of attire, beads possess the desirable...